Civil service

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A civil servant or public servant is an employee who works in the civilian career public sector for a government department or agency. Many consider the study of civil service to be a part of the field of public administration. Who is a civil servant and who is not is different in different countries.

Workers in non-departmental public bodies, (called Quangos in some countries) may also be called civil servants in context with statistics. All people that may be called civil servants together form a nation's Civil Service or Public Service.

References[change | edit source]

  • Bodde, D. Chinese Ideas in the West
  • Brownlow, Louis, Charles E. Merriam, and Luther Gulick, Report of the President's Committee on Administrative Management. (1937) U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • P. N. Mathur. The Civil Service of India, 1731-1894: a study of the history, evolution and demand for reform (1977)
  • Kevin Theakston. The Civil Service Since 1945 (Institute of Contemporary British History, 1995)
  • Ari Hoogenboom. Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement, 1865-1883. (1961)
  • Schiesl, Martin. The Politics of Efficiency: Municipal Administration and Reform in America, 1880-1920. (1977)
  • Van Riper, Paul. History of the United States Civil Service (1958).
  • White, Leonard D., Introduction to the Study of Public Administration. (1955)
  • Leonard D. White, Charles H. Bland, Walter R. Sharp, and Fritz Morstein Marx; Civil Service Abroad, Great Britain, Canada, France, Germany (1935) online