Temporal range: 3500 mya – Recent
Cyanobacteria are a taxon of bacteria which conduct photosynthesis. They are not algae, though they were once called blue-green algae. It is a phylum of bacteria, with about 1500 species. In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. Their DNA profile is evidence for this.
The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is highly significant. The early atmosphere on Earth was largely reducing, that is, without oxygen. The cyanobacteria in stromatolites were the first known organisms to photosynthesise and produce free oxygen. After about a billion years, the effect of this photosynthesis began a huge change in the atmosphere. The process, called the Great Oxygenation Event, took a long time. Eventually, it killed off most of the organisms which could not live in oxygen, and led to the kinds of environment we know today, where most organisms use and need oxygen.
Other pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- "Cyanophyceae". Cyanophyceae. Access Science. http://www.accessscience.com/content/Cyanophyceae/175300. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Ahoren Oren (2004). "A proposal for further integration of the cyanobacteria under the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54 (Pt 5): 1895–1902. . .
- Sapp J. 1994. Evolution by association: a history of symbiosis. Oxford.
- Giovannoni S.J. et al 1988. Evolutionary relationships among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts. J Bacteriol. 170: 3584–3592.
- Gupta, Radhey S. et al 2003. Molecular signatures in protein sequences that are characteristic of cyanobacteria and plastidhomologues. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53, 1833-1842. Gupta, R
- Knoll, Andrew H. 2004. Life on a young planet: the first three billion years of evolution on Earth. Princeton, N.J. ISBN 0-691-12029-3
- Frei R. et al 2009. Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature 461 (7261): 250–253. Abstract: 
- Holland, Heinrich D. 2006. The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 361, p. 903–915.