Enterotype

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

An enterotype is a classification of living organisms. It is based on the ecosystem that is created in the human intestinal system by the bacteria that exists there. This is called the "human gut microbiome". Peer Bork and scientists that worked with him said in the April 2011 issue of Nature that they have found three enterotypes.[1][2] They think that people can be classified into one of three groups based on the bacteria in their intestines. The enterotype of each person is set while the person is an infant. The enterotype affects how well a person can digest food or absorb drugs.[3] Chimpanzees have enterotypes that look similar to human enterotypes.[4]

Type 1 has high levels of Bacteroides. Prevotella are common in Type 2. Type 3 has high levels of Ruminococcus.[1][5][6]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Zimmer, Carl (April 20, 2011). "Bacteria divide people into 3 types, scientists say". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/21/science/21gut.html. Retrieved April 21, 2011. "a group of scientists now report just three distinct ecosystems in the guts of people they have studied."
  2. Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Raes, Jeroenet al (2011). "Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome". Nature 473 (7346): 174–80. doi:10.1038/nature09944 . PMID 21508958 . http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature09944.html. "Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific.".
  3. "Reasons to listen to your gut". The Week: p. 28. December 30, 2011.
  4. Moeller, Andrew H. et al (2012). "Chimpanzees and humans harbour compositionally similar gut enterotypes". Nature Communications 3 (1179). doi:10.1038/ncomms2159 .
  5. Keim, Brandon (2011). "Gut-bacteria mapping finds three global varieties". Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/04/gut-bacteria-types/. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  6. Coghlan, Andy (April 20, 2011). "Each human has one of only three gut ecosystems". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20401-each-human-has-one-of-only-three-gut-ecosystems.html. Retrieved April 21, 2011.