Gnetophyta

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Welwitschia

The Gnetophytes are a group of seed plants with three genera. Their evolutionary relationships are unclear.

The three genera are:

Most morphological and molecular studies confirm that Gnetum and Welwitschia diverged from each other more recently than from Ephedra.[1][2][3][4][5]

References[change | change source]

  1. Peter R. Crane, Patrick Herendeen and Else Marie Friis (2004). "Fossils and plant phylogeny". American Journal of Botany 91: 1683–1699. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1683. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/91/10/1683.
  2. Bowe L.M; Coat G. and dePamphilis C.W. (2000). "Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales’ closest relatives are conifers". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 97: 4092–4097. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.8.4092. http://www.pnas.org/content/97/8/4092.full.
  3. Gugerli F. et al (2001). "The evolutionary split of Pinaceae from other conifers: evidence from an intron loss and a multigene phylogeny". Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution 21 (2): 167–175. doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.1004. PMID 11697913. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WNH-456JS33-H&_user=18704&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1138931837&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000002018&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=18704&md5=0a3650492a24edd77c6acd1ffef1ae87.
  4. Rai H.S. et al (2008). "Inference of higher-order conifer relationships from a multi-locus plastid data set". Botany 86: 658–669. doi:10.1139/B08-062. http://columbia.library.ingentaconnect.com/content/nrc/bot/2008/00000086/00000007/art00004.
  5. Ickert-Bond S.M; C. Rydin and S.S. Renner (2009). "A fossil-calibrated relaxed clock for Ephedra indicates an Oligocene age for the divergence of Asian and New World clades, and Miocene dispersal into South America". Journal of Systematics and Evolution 47: 444-456. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/j.1759-6831.2009.00053.x/asset/j.1759-6831.2009.00053.x.pdf?v=1&t=h3tses6s&s=16e93aab7f364e4fc976943373d12ae7d30d34a7.