Grand Duchy of Tuscany
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana, Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. It was ruled by the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The grand duchy's capital was Florence. Until the House of Lorraine took over from the Medici, Tuscany was a state of the Holy Roman Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.