The Junior Certificate is earned by passing a required exam that takes place in secondary schools in the Republic of Ireland.
The exams take place every June, with English always the first exam. For example, the English exam took place on June 8 this year (2005). Exams usually end with the subjects that the fewest people take. For example, Italian took place on June 24 this year (2005).
Three exams must be passed in order to receive a certificate: They are English, Mathematics, and Irish. If a student has not lived in Ireland for at least seven years before the exam, he is not required to sit for the Irish exam. A student may then take 3-6 other subjects to get his certifcate.
The results of the exams are given in mid-September.