Kiwirrkura, Western Australia
Kiwirrkura (also spelled Kiwirrkurra) is a small community in Western Australia, near to Lake Mackay. It is 850 km west of Alice Springs. It has been said to be the most remote community in Australia. It was established by Pintupi people as an outstation in the early 1980s. It became a permanent settlement in 1983. It was one of the last areas with nomadic, hunter-gatherer Aboriginals; the last group were settled here in 1984.
The town was evacuated in March 2001 because of serious floods. The population (about 170 people) were first moved to Kintore, then to Alice Springs and then finally to the Goldfields of Western Australia, over 2,000 km (1,200 mi) south of Kiwirrkurra. At Alice Springs, the people drunk alcohol for the first time. This led to major conflicts and violence. The community moved back to Kiwirrkurra in late 2002. Though they had been evacuated and living in other places at the time, the Kiwirrkurra people gained native title over the area on 19 October 2001. The title covered 42,900 km2 (16,600 sq mi) of the land and waters around the town.
- Brinkley, Cath (February 2009). "Kiwirrkurra:the flood in the desert". The Australian Journal of Emergency Management 24 (1). http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:s8IKN1IIM5cJ:www.ema.gov.au/www/emaweb/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/(712B446AA84F124A6F0833A09BD304C8)~Kiwirrkurra%2BReport%2B(2).pdf/%24file/Kiwirrkurra%2BReport%2B(2).pdf+kiwirrkurra&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- "Kiwirrkurra – the most remote community in Australia". Biting the Dust. 25 March 2009. http://bitethedust.com.au/bitingthedust/2009/03/25/kiwirrkurra-%E2%80%93-the-most-remote-community-in-australia/. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Toohey, Paul (4 May 2004). "The Last Nomads". The Bulletin: p. 28–35. http://www.westerndesertdialysis.com/archives/news-reports/20040504%20The%20Bulletin%20The%20last%20of%20the%20nomads.pdf.
- Myers, Fred (November 1988). "Locating ethnographic practice: Romance, reality and politics in the Outback". American Ethnologist 15 (4). https://files.nyu.edu/frm1/public/source_files/pdfs/myers%20locating.pdf.
- "Kiwirrkurra people return home". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 August 2002. http://www.abc.net.au/am/stories/s647195.htm. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- "Negotiations result in recognition of Kiwirrkurra people's native title rights". National Native Title Tribunal. 19 October 2001. http://www.nntt.gov.au/News-and-Communications/Media-Releases/Pages/Negotiations_result_in_recognition_of_Ki.aspx. Retrieved 26 June 2009.