Map coloring

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Colors are used to show the altitude, on Easter Island
Map of the United States. Colors are used to show the different states.
Results of the US Presidential election in 2004. Colors are used to show the amount of support each candidate received.

Map coloring is a term used for two different concepts: In geography and mapmaking it is used to say that colors are assigned to certain areas on a map. Examples of this are coloring that show the countries or divisions of a country, but also to visualize other data, for example the altitude. The other use is in mathematics: There it is used to describe the problem of finding the minimal number of colors needed to color a given map.