Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice.
Kinds of Microphones [change]
Sound passes through the air in waves, and as was said above, the microphone turns this into an electrical wave. Different kinds of microphones will turn the sound waves into electricity in different ways.
Dynamic Microphone - A Dynamic Microphone uses a round plastic or rubber disk connected to a wire coil in order to turn sound into electricity. Basically, the sound wave will hit the disk which vibrates as a result. This vibration will move the coil back and forth near a magnet very quickly in order to create an electrical current. This is the exact opposite of a speaker which uses an electrical current to move the coil, which moves the disk. Then the disk makes sound.
Condenser Microphone - A condenser microphone uses two small metal plates to create an electrical current. Basically two small metal plates are placed right next to each other and electricity is run through the plates. This creates an electric field in between the two plates. When sound hits these plates, the plates vibrate. The vibration makes small changes in the electric field. These changes create the electrical signal.
Ribbon Microphone - This is somewhat similar to a Dynamic microphone. You take a thin, small sheet of metal (tin or aluminum usually), and place it in between two magnets. When sound hits the thin piece of metal, the metal vibrates. That vibration creates an electrical signal in the metal.
Other pages [change]
- Loudspeaker — The inverse of a dynamic microphone
Other websites [change]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Microphones|
- Info, Pictures and Soundbytes from vintage microphones
- Microphone construction and basic placement advice
- History of the Microphone
- Microphone sensitivity conversion — dB re 1 V/Pa and transfer factor mV/Pa
- Large vs. Small Diaphragms in Omnidirectional Microphones