The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC, and were probably the largest wars in the ancient world. They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry).
- First Punic War 264 to 241 BC. Hannibal's father Hamilcar Barca was the Carthaginian general.
- Second Punic War 218 to 201 BC. Hannibal was the Carthaginian general. Hannibal used a tactic of crossing the Alps with elephants in order to attack Rome where they were weak, because they had centralized their defence on the coast, expecting a naval attack from Carthage.
- Third Punic War 149 to 146 BC. Carthage was defeated at last.
Carthage was a trading nation founded by Phoenicians. It was the dominant sea power in the western Mediterranean. It was a maritime empire, in contrast to the land-based Roman empire. The Romans decided they needed Sicily, which was then in Carthaginian hands. The consequence was a series of wars which lasted over a hundred years, and ended in the utter destruction of Carthage.
- Chris Scarre, "The Wars with Carthage," The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995), 24-25.
- Goldsworthy, The Punic Wars, p. 13