Research is the process of finding facts. These facts will lead to knowledge. Research is done by using what is already known (if any). Additional knowledge can be obtained by proving (or falsifying) existing theories and by trying to better explain observations. Research process, both analytical and experimental, should be systematic, organized and objective.
Academic research [change]
Students do research by participating in the field or laboratory experiments, reading relevant books or internet information about a subject, taking notes and making conclusions.
Scientific research [change]
The Scientific method is a common way of doing this kind of research which is meant to improve understanding of Biology, Engineering, Physics, Chemistry and of many other fields. As a result, scientific research makes possible to discover new medicines, to build automobiles safer, and to provide healthy food. Money for research comes from governments, private corporations, and charities.
Some basic principles of research [change]
Any research should be:
- Systematic: From the expression of an hypothesis or working objective, scientists gather some data according to a scheme that has been established in advance. Since the data are analyzed and interpreted, the scientists change knowledge or they add new knowledge to that already existing one, and they start at the same time a new cycle of research. The systematic approach, used in research, is of the scientific method.
- Organized: All the members of a group of research have to know what they have to do during whole the work, to put into use the same definitions, standards and principles to all the persons that take the part in it. By achieving this state, it is completely necessary to write a protocol of research where scientists specify all the details in relation with the work.
- Objective: The conclusions obtained from the research have to base not on the subjective impressions, but on observed and measured facts. They are interpretation which avoids every prejudice which the persons responsible for the research would have.
Basic activities at research process [change]
- Studying available information on the subject.
- Physical or computer modeling.
- Measuring the phenomena.
- Comparing the obtained results.
- Interpreting the results with the current knowledge, considering the variables which might have influenced the result.
Types of research [change]
- Basic research, also called fundamental research or pure research.
- Applied research which is targeting an application of the new knowledge into the practice.
Classification of research per connections among disciplines [change]
- Multidisciplinary research: in this kind of research the evaluation is realized from different angles, using different perspectives of discipline without bringing to the integration.
- Interdisciplinary research: this kind of research relates to the creation of an identity of methodology, of theory and of concepts, by this which the results are more coherent and integrated.
- Transdisciplinary research: it goes more behind than the previous types and it relates to the process with a convergence among disciplines accompanied with a mutual integration.
- Trochim, W.M.K, (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base.