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Old and new buildings in the downtown of Seoul
Seoul (Korean: 서울) is the biggest city of the Republic of Korea (South Korea), and its capital. Its official name is Seoul Special City (Korean: 서울특별시). It is in the middle of Korea. It has a population of 10 millions which is about 1/5 of the Korean population and 1/7 of Korea peninsula, and covers an area of 610 km² that is only 0.6% of South Korea. It is the 6th most populated city in the world, and 7th most crowded. Seoul is the center of politics, economy, culture, transportation, and education for South Korea.
Seoul is in the middle of the Korean Peninsula. Han River(Korean: 한강) is a major river in South Korea and the fourth longest river on the Korean peninsula. This river across Central of Seoul.
Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Olympic Games. It also hosted the 2007 World Schools Debate Championships.
Seoul is thought to be the capital of Baekje Kingdom(백제) from 18 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Wiryeseong (위례성). Wiryeseong is thought to be Songpa-gu, Seoul. During Silla Period(신라시대), Hanju(한주) was name of Seoul. During Goryeo Period(고려시대), the name of Seoul was Namgyeong (남경) which means "the south capital". There was a palace of Goryeo Dynasty. Hanyang was name of Seoul in late Goryeo Period. After establishment of Joseon Dynasty, the name of Seoul was Hanseong (한성) and Hanseong became the capital of Joseon Kingdom. From 1910 to 1945 when Korea was under Japanese rule, the name of Seoul was Gyeongseong (경성). Since South Korea was started in 1948, it has been the capital, except for a short time during the Korean War. Seoul became a special city in 1948. April 19th Revolution (4.19혁명) and June Revolution (6월민주항쟁) was took place in Seoul.
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