|Slide culture of a Streptomyces species|
Waksman & Henrici 1943
Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria. Over 500 species of Streptomyces bacteria have been described. They are bacteria, but their manner of growth makes them look like fungi. They form long thin threads or hyphae. However, they are not related to fungi
As with other Actinobacteria, streptomycetes are gram-positive, and have genomes with high GC content. Mostly the bacteria lives in soil and decaying vegetation, and produces spores as its method of reproduction.
Streptomycetes produce over two-thirds of the clinically useful antibiotics of natural origin (e.g., tetracycline, neomycin and chloramphenicol). The now uncommonly used streptomycin takes its name directly from Streptomyces.
Streptomyces is the largest antibiotic-producing genus, making antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs. They also make a wide range of other bioactive compounds, such as immunosuppressants.
References[change | change source]
- Kämpfer P. (2006). "The Family Streptomycetaceae, Part I: Taxonomy". In Dworkin M. et al. The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria. Berlin: Springer. pp. 538–604. .
- Euzéby J.P. (2008). "Genus Streptomyces". List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/s/streptomycesa.html. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
- 'high GC content' means the DNA has far more guanine–cytosine links than adenine–thiamine links.
- Madigan A. & Martinko J. (eds) (2005). Brock biology of microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. .
- Kieser T. et al (2000). Practical Streptomyces genetics (2nd ed.). Norwich, England: John Innes Foundation. .
- Watve M.G. et al (2001). "How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces?". Arch. Microbiol. 176 (5): 386–90. . .
- Chater, Keith F. et al 2010. The complex extracellular biology of Streptomyces. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 34 (2): 171–98.