Streptomyces

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Streptomyces
Slide culture of a Streptomyces species
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Class: Actinobacteria
Order: Actinomycetales
Genus: Streptomyces
Waksman & Henrici 1943

Streptomyces is the largest genus of Actinobacteria.[1] Over 500 species of Streptomyces bacteria have been described.[2] They are bacteria, but their manner of growth makes them look like fungi. They form long thin threads or hyphae. However, they are not related to fungi

As with other Actinobacteria, streptomycetes are gram-positive, and have genomes with high GC content.[3][4] Mostly the bacteria lives in soil and decaying vegetation, and produces spores as its method of reproduction.

Streptomycetes produce over two-thirds of the clinically useful antibiotics of natural origin (e.g., tetracycline, neomycin and chloramphenicol).[5] The now uncommonly used streptomycin takes its name directly from Streptomyces.

Streptomyces is the largest antibiotic-producing genus, making antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs. They also make a wide range of other bioactive compounds, such as immunosuppressants.[6]

Almost all of the bioactive compounds produced by Streptomyces are made while the hyphae are forming from the substrate mycelium.[7]

References[change | change source]

  1. Kämpfer P. (2006). "The Family Streptomycetaceae, Part I: Taxonomy". In Dworkin M. et al. The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria. Berlin: Springer. pp. 538–604. ISBN 0-387-25493-5.
  2. Euzéby J.P. (2008). "Genus Streptomyces". List of prokaryotic names with standing in nomenclature. http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/s/streptomycesa.html. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
  3. 'high GC content' means the DNA has far more guaninecytosine links than adeninethiamine links.
  4. Madigan A. & Martinko J. (eds) (2005). Brock biology of microorganisms (11th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1.
  5. Kieser T. et al (2000). Practical Streptomyces genetics (2nd ed.). Norwich, England: John Innes Foundation. ISBN 0-7084-0623-8.
  6. Watve M.G. et al (2001). "How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces?". Arch. Microbiol. 176 (5): 386–90. doi:10.1007/s002030100345. PMID 11702082.
  7. Chater, Keith F. et al 2010. The complex extracellular biology of Streptomyces. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 34 (2): 171–98. [1]