||The English used in this article may not be easy for everybody to understand. (February 2012)|
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS desktop (Precise Pangolin)
|Company / developer||Canonical Ltd. / Ubuntu Foundation|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||October 20, 2004|
|Latest stable release||12.10 / October 18, 2012|
|Available language(s)||Multilingual (more than 55)|
|Update method||APT (front-ends available)|
|Package manager||dpkg (front-ends like Synaptic available)|
|Supported platforms||IA-32, x86-64, PowerPC, ARM, IA-64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Default user interface||Unity|
|License||Mainly the GNU GPL / plus various other licenses|
It is one of the most popular Linux distributions and it is based on Debian Linux. The goal with Ubuntu is to make it easy to use and install onto a computer. Ubuntu can be used on all types of personal computers. Ubuntu is downloaded as a CD, which is free to download on the Ubuntu website. It can be installed or tested by running the CD.
Packages and software support [change]
||The English used in this article may not be easy for everybody to understand. (March 2012)|
|free software||non-free software|
Free software here includes only software that meets the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which almost are the same as the Debian Free Software Guidelines. There is one difference for the Main category, however — it has firmware and fonts which cannot be changed, but are included if Ubuntu will not work right.
Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are given for very important non-free software. Supported non-free software include device drivers that are needed to run Ubuntu on current hardware. The level of support in the Restricted category is less than that of Main, since the developers may not be able to get to the source code. It is wanted that Main and Restricted should contain all the software needed for a general-use Linux system.
Besides the official repositories is Ubuntu Backports, which is an officially known project to backport newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive (meaning that it has parts missing from it); it is mostly made up of user-requested packages, which are accepted if they meet quality guidelines.
|Version||Release Date||Name||More Information|
|4.10||20 October 2004||Warty Warthog||First version|
|5.04||8 April 2005||Hoary Hedgehog||First "Kubuntu" created|
|5.10||13 October 2005||Breezy Badger||First "Edubuntu"|
|6.06||1 June 2006||Dapper Drake||LTS-version, First "Xubuntu" created|
|6.06.1||August 2006||Dapper Drake Point One||LTS-version, 1st Update|
|6.06.2||January 2008||Dapper Drake Point Two||LTS-version, 2nd Update|
|6.10||26 October 2006||Edgy Eft||experimental version|
|7.04||19 April 2007||Feisty Fawn|
|7.10||18 October 2007||Gutsy Gibbon||First "Gobuntu" created|
|8.04||24 April 2008||Hardy Heron||LTS-version|
|8.04.1||June 2008||Hardy Heron Point One||LTS-version, 1st Update|
|8.10||27 October 2008||Intrepid Ibex|
|9.04||23 April 2009||Jaunty Jackalope|
|9.10||29 October 2009||Karmic Koala|
|10.04||29 April 2010||Lucid Lynx||LTS-version|
|10.10||10 October 2010||Maverick Meerkat|
|11.04||28 April 2011||Natty Narwhal|
|11.10||13 October 2011||Oneiric Ocelot|
|12.04||26 April 2012||Precise Pangolin||LTS-version|
|12.10||18 October 2012||Quantal Quetzel|
LTS denotes Long Term Support
Because there are several options for which desktop environment to use, Ubuntu is available in many different variants.
The official sister distributions which are fully supported by Canonical are:
- Kubuntu, a desktop distribution using KDE rather than GNOME
- Edubuntu, a distribution designed for classrooms using GNOME
- Ubuntu Server Edition
Derivatives that are recognized but not supported by Canonical are:
- Xubuntu, a "lightweight" distribution based on the Xfce desktop environment instead of GNOME, designed to run better on low-specification computers.
- Gobuntu, a flavour of Ubuntu that strives to be completely devoid of software, drivers or firmware with restrictive licenses.
- Mythbuntu, a multimedia platform based on MythTV
- Ubuntu Studio, a multimedia-creation form of Ubuntu
- Ubuntu JeOS (pronounced as "juice"), is described as "an efficient variant ... configured specifically for virtual appliances".
Other pages [change]
- Ubuntu download site
- "uBuntu - Its Meaning". Ubuntu Peace Project. http://www.ubuntupeaceproject.com/site/awdep.asp?depnum=19055. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- Daniel Miessler (23 October 2007). "This is How You Pronounce Ubuntu". danielmiessler.com. http://danielmiessler.com/blog/this-is-how-you-pronounce-ubuntu. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- "ubuntu/components". http://www.ubuntu.com/community/ubuntustory/components. Retrieved 2006-03-16.
- "ubuntu/licensing". http://www.ubuntu.com/community/ubuntustory/licensing. Retrieved 2006-06-29.
- "UbuntuBackports". http://ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=41. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Ubuntu 5.10 announcement". https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2005-October/000038.html. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Ubuntu 5.10 release notes". http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/510. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
- "Ubuntu 6.06 announcement". http://www.ubuntu.com/news/606released. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Ubuntu 6.06 release notes". http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/606. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
- "Ubuntu 6.10 announcement". http://www.ubuntu.com/news/610released. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Ubuntu 6.10 release notes". http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/610. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
- "Ubuntu 7.04 announcement". https://wiki.ubuntu.com/FeistyFawn. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- "Ubuntu 8.10 Desktop Edition enables mobile, flexible computing for a changing digital world"
- ArchLinux.org, "Official repositories," excerpt, "A software repository is a storage location from which software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer"; retrieved 2012-6-7.
- Unbuntu, Package unetbootin; retrieved 2012-6-7.
- "Derivatives". http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/derivatives. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
- "Ubuntu JeOS 7.10 released". https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2007-November/000106.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
Other websites [change]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ubuntu Linux|
- Official website
- Kubuntu – Ubuntu with KDE
- Edubuntu – Ubuntu for children to learn with
- Xubuntu – Ubuntu with Xfce
- Ubuntu Guide (unofficial) – help manual, tips, FAQ, and software guide
- Ubuntu at DistroWatch