Ubuntu

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Ubuntu
Ubuntu logo
Ubuntu1404.png
Ubuntu Desktop 14.04 "Trusty Tahr" with Unity 7.2
Company / developer Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu community
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Open source
Initial release 20 October 2004 (2004-10-20)
Latest stable release 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr / 17 April 2014 (2014-04-17)}[1]
Marketing target Servers
Personal computing
Smart TVs (Ubuntu TV)
Smartphones /
Tablet computers (Ubuntu Touch)
Available language(s) Multi-lingual (more than 55)
Update method APT / Software Updater
Ubuntu Software Center
Package manager dpkg, Click
Supported platforms IA-32, X86-64,[2] ARM[2][3][4][5][6]
Kernel type Monolithic (Linux kernel)
Userland GNU
Default user interface 4.10–11.04: GNOME Panel
11.04 and later: Unity
License Free software licenses
(mainly GNU GPL)
Official website www.ubuntu.com

Ubuntu is a free operating system that uses the Linux kernel. The word "ubuntu" is an old African word meaning "humanity." [7] It is pronounced "oo-boon-too".[8]

It is one of the most popular Linux distributions and it is based on Debian Linux. The goal with Ubuntu is to make it easy to use and install onto a computer. Ubuntu can be used on all types of personal computers. Ubuntu is downloaded as a CD, which is free to download on the Ubuntu website. It can be installed or tested by running the CD.

Started in 2004, Ubuntu has been developed at a fast rate by Canonical Ltd., a company owned by a rich South African man by the name of Mark Shuttleworth.

Packages and software support[change | change source]

Ubuntu 8.04 CD
Ubuntu running on the Nexus S smartphone

Ubuntu splits all software into four different categories to show differences in licensing and the amount of support available.[9] They are:

free software non-free software
supported Main Restricted
unsupported Universe Multiverse

Free software here includes only software that meets the Ubuntu licensing requirements,[10] which almost are the same as the Debian Free Software Guidelines. There is one difference for the Main category, however — it has firmware and fonts which cannot be changed, but are included if Ubuntu will not work right.[9]

Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are given for very important non-free software. Supported non-free software include device drivers that are needed to run Ubuntu on current hardware. The level of support in the Restricted category is less than that of Main, since the developers may not be able to get to the source code. It is wanted that Main and Restricted should contain all the software needed for a general-use Linux system.

Besides the official repositories is Ubuntu Backports,[11] which is an officially known project to backport newer software from later versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive (meaning that it has parts missing from it); it is mostly made up of user-requested packages, which are accepted if they meet quality guidelines.

Releases[change | change source]

Two new releases of Ubuntu are released each year, normally in April and October. Ubuntu 6.06 was meant to be released in April, but it was released in June because it was not finished by April.

The number of the Ubuntu release is 'X.YY', with 'X' being the year of release (minus 2000) and 'Y' being the month of release. For example, Ubuntu 4.10 was released in October (the tenth month of the year), 2004. The name of the release (for example, Breezy Badger) is an adjective (a describing word) followed by the name of an animal.[12]

Version Release Date Name More Information
4.10 20 October 2004 Warty Warthog First version
5.04 8 April 2005 Hoary Hedgehog First "Kubuntu" created
5.10 13 October 2005[13][14] Breezy Badger First "Edubuntu"
6.06 1 June 2006[15][16] Dapper Drake LTS-version, First "Xubuntu" created
6.06.1 August 2006 Dapper Drake Point One LTS-version, 1st Update
6.06.2 January 2008 Dapper Drake Point Two LTS-version, 2nd Update
6.10 26 October 2006[17][18] Edgy Eft experimental version
7.04 19 April 2007[19] Feisty Fawn
7.10 18 October 2007 Gutsy Gibbon First "Gobuntu" created
8.04 24 April 2008 Hardy Heron LTS-version
8.04.1 June 2008 Hardy Heron Point One LTS-version, 1st Update
8.10 27 October 2008[20] Intrepid Ibex
9.04 23 April 2009 Jaunty Jackalope
9.10 29 October 2009 Karmic Koala
10.04 29 April 2010 Lucid Lynx LTS-version
10.10 10 October 2010 Maverick Meerkat
11.04 28 April 2011 Natty Narwhal
11.10 13 October 2011 Oneiric Ocelot
12.04 26 April 2012 Precise Pangolin LTS-version; Server release
12.10 18 October 2012 Quantal Quetzel
13.04 25 April 2013 Raring Ringtail
13.10 17 October 2013[21] Saucy Salamander Server release
14.04 17 April 2014[1] Trusty Tahr LTS-version; Server release

LTS denotes Long Term Support

Package[change | change source]

Ubuntu's official software package repository[22] includes, for example, UNetbootin.[23]

Variants[change | change source]

Kubuntu is an official variant of the Ubuntu distribution which uses KDE rather than GNOME.
Super OS is an unofficial remaster.

Because there are several options for which desktop environment to use, Ubuntu is available in many different variants.

The official sister distributions which are fully supported by Canonical are:[24]

  • Kubuntu, a desktop distribution using KDE rather than GNOME
  • Edubuntu, a distribution designed for classrooms using GNOME
  • Ubuntu Server Edition

Derivatives that are recognized but not supported by Canonical are:[24]

  • Xubuntu, a "lightweight" distribution based on the Xfce desktop environment instead of GNOME, designed to run better on low-specification computers.
  • Gobuntu, a flavour of Ubuntu that strives to be completely devoid of software, drivers or firmware with restrictive licenses.
  • Mythbuntu, a multimedia platform based on MythTV
  • Ubuntu Studio, a multimedia-creation form of Ubuntu
  • Ubuntu JeOS (pronounced as "juice"), is described as "an efficient variant ... configured specifically for virtual appliances".[25]


Other pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Adam Conrad (17 April 2014). "Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (Trusty Tahr) released". Ubuntu Mailing Lists. https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2014-April/000182.html. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Supported Hardware". Official Ubuntu Documentation. https://help.ubuntu.com/12.04/installation-guide/i386/hardware-supported.html#idp3246048. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  3. "Ubuntu 11.10 will support ARM processors to take on Red Hat". The Inquirer. 10 October 2011. http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/2115929/ubuntu-1110-support-arm-chips-fight-red-hat. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  4. Paul, Ryan (26 April 2012). "Precise Pangolin rolls out: Ubuntu 12.04 released, introduces Unity HUD". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. http://arstechnica.com/business/2012/04/precise-pangolin-rolls-out-ubuntu-1204-released-introduces-unity-hud/. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  5. Larabel, Michael (23 January 2012). "Ubuntu's Already Making Plans For ARM In 2014, 2015". Phoronix. http://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=news_item&px=MTA0NzA. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  6. Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols (22 August 2011). "Ubuntu Linux bets on the ARM server". ZDNet. http://www.zdnet.com/blog/open-source/ubuntu-linux-bets-on-the-arm-server/9445. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  7. "uBuntu - Its Meaning". Ubuntu Peace Project. http://www.ubuntupeaceproject.com/site/awdep.asp?depnum=19055. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
  8. Daniel Miessler (23 October 2007). "This is How You Pronounce Ubuntu". danielmiessler.com. http://danielmiessler.com/blog/this-is-how-you-pronounce-ubuntu. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "ubuntu/components". http://www.ubuntu.com/community/ubuntustory/components. Retrieved 2006-03-16.
  10. "ubuntu/licensing". http://www.ubuntu.com/community/ubuntustory/licensing. Retrieved 2006-06-29.
  11. "UbuntuBackports". http://ubuntuforums.org/forumdisplay.php?f=41. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  12. "Ubuntu naming system". http://wiki.ubuntu.com/DevelopmentCodeNames. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
  13. "Ubuntu 5.10 announcement". https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2005-October/000038.html. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  14. "Ubuntu 5.10 release notes". http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/510. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
  15. "Ubuntu 6.06 announcement". http://www.ubuntu.com/news/606released. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  16. "Ubuntu 6.06 release notes". http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/606. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
  17. "Ubuntu 6.10 announcement". http://www.ubuntu.com/news/610released. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  18. "Ubuntu 6.10 release notes". http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/610. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
  19. "Ubuntu 7.04 announcement". https://wiki.ubuntu.com/FeistyFawn. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  20. "Ubuntu 8.10 Desktop Edition enables mobile, flexible computing for a changing digital world"
  21. "Ubuntu 13.10 (Saucy Salamander) released"
  22. ArchLinux.org, "Official repositories," excerpt, "A software repository is a storage location from which software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer"; retrieved 2012-6-7.
  23. Unbuntu, Package unetbootin; retrieved 2012-6-7.
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Derivatives". http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/derivatives. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
  25. "Ubuntu JeOS 7.10 released". https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2007-November/000106.html. Retrieved 2008-06-10.

Other websites[change | change source]