2024 Noto earthquake

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2024 Noto earthquake
Wajima after the earthquake and fires
2024 Noto earthquake is located in Japan
2024 Noto earthquake
UTC time2024-01-01 07:10:09
ISC event636373819
Local date1 January 2024 (2024-01-01)
Local time16:10:09 JST (UTC+9)
Durationc. 50 seconds
Magnitude7.6 MJMA
7.5 Mw
Depth10 km (6 mi) (USGS)
Epicenter37°29′53″N 137°14′31″E / 37.498°N 137.242°E / 37.498; 137.242
Areas affectedJapan
Total damageUS$17.6 billion (estimated)
Max. intensity
Peak acceleration2.88 g (2,826 gal)
Tsunami6.58 m (21.6 ft)
Foreshocks5.7 MJMA
Aftershocks8,582 total; 169 of M ≥ 4;
Largest: 6.1 MJMA  or 6.2 mb 
Casualties245 dead, 1,298 injured, 2 missing

On 1 January 2024, at 16:10 JST (07:10 UTC), a Mw 7.5 earthquake happened in the Noto Peninsula[1] of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.[2] The earthquake caused a tsunami along the Sea of Japan.[3] As of 26 March 2024, there were 245 deaths, 1,298 injuries and 2 others were missing, making it the deadliest earthquake in Japan since the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes.[4]

The Japan Meteorological Agency officially named this earthquake the 2024 Noto Peninsula Earthquake.

Tectonic setting[change | change source]

The northeastern tip of the Noto Peninsula in Japan has been experiencing many earthquakes for three years. The biggest one recently was stronger than another big earthquake that happened in May 2023.[5] This was the largest earthquake in the Sea of Japan since 1983.[6]

Japan is located where four big pieces of the Earth's crust (Pacific, Philippine Sea, Okhotsk, and Amurian Plates) meet. This causes a lot of earthquakes. On the east and southeast coasts, the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates are moving under the land (a process called subduction) at two places: the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough.[7] The west coast, near the Sea of Japan, is also where two plates meet, and they are slowly starting to move under each other, creating faults.[8]

This area has been geologically active for a very long time, since the end of the Pliocene era.[9] Earthquakes and tsunamis happen here because of the plates moving against each other. There have been big earthquakes and tsunamis in the past in 1741, 1833, 1940, 1964, 1983, and 1993. But, it's not completely clear what caused the 1741 tsunami.[10]

Earthquake[change | change source]

USGS ShakeMap

A big earthquake happened,[11][2] and it was not very deep under the ground. This earthquake happened where two big pieces of the Earth's crust, the Okhotsk Plate and Amurian Plate, are pushing against each other. The earthquake was caused by these plates squeezing and sliding in opposite directions.

Before the main big earthquake, there was a smaller one, with an magnitude of 5.5,[12] and after it, there was another one, with an magnitude of 6.2,[13] along with several other smaller earthquakes.[6]

The area affected by the earthquake was about 200 kilometers long, stretching from the Noto Peninsula to Sado Island. The earthquake caused the ground to shift a lot in some places, with the biggest shift being about 3.67 meters. This shifting probably reached all the way to the bottom of the sea.[14]

The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan said that some areas of the country shifted about 1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) to the west. The largest displacement occurred in Wajima due to crustal deformation. In Anamizu, the land moved 1 m (3 ft 3 in) westward. However, the agency noted that these movements might be related to slopes or local ground changes instead.[15]

Tsunami[change | change source]

Japan[change | change source]

A map of tsunami warnings reported by the Japan Meteorological Agency on 1 January 2024.

After the earthquake, there was a big warning for a tsunami, the first one since the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. NHK, a public broadcaster, said 5 m (16 ft) tsunami waves might come,[6] and a survey performed by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers’ coastal engineering committee found that the Shika communities of Akasaki and Shishizu recorded a 5.1-meter tsunami. [1] In Hōryū, in coastal Suzu, the tsunami gouged the coastline, causing it to erode, evidence of the power with which it hit. The tsunami also lifted boats and cars and flattened weaker buildings, carrying a stream of debris with it. One piece of evidence of the tsunami’s sheer force is the damaged asphalt everywhere. The powerful currents stripped roads bare. At least 26 deaths are attributed to the tsunami alone. [2]

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center warned of dangerous waves near the quake's center. About 51,000 people had to leave their homes; 1,000 went to a base in Wajima, Ishikawa.[16]

The first tsunami waves hit around 16:21.[6] Wajima got 1.2 m (4 ft) waves.[17] Kanazawa saw 90 cm (35 in),[18] Toyama and Sakata got 80 cm (31 in) waves.[19] Smaller waves hit other places like Nanao, Tsuruga, Kashiwazaki,[20] Toyooka, Tobishima,[21] and Sado Island. Toyama city had a 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) wave.[6] Hokkaido saw up to 60 cm (24 in) waves.[19]

In Suzu, homes were moved, and boats were overturned.[22] A resident saw tsunami waves moving cars and debris, reaching 3 meters (9.8 ft) high. The tsunami pushed water up to 100 meters (330 ft) inland at Iida Port in Ishikawa.[23]

The tsunami warning was lowered to an advisory around 20:30 and ended by 10:01 on 2 January, 18 hours after the earthquake.[24]

Elsewhere along the Sea of Japan[change | change source]

The Korea Meteorological Administration said that sea levels might rise along South Korea's east coast, including Gangwon Province and Pohang.[21][20] They expected 0.3 m (1 ft) waves from 18:29 to 19:17 local time.[25] Later, a 0.45 m (1 ft 6 in) tsunami hit Gangwon, and a 0.85 m (3 ft) wave struck Mukho around 20:00.[26] Tsunamis of 0.66 m (2 ft 2 in) in Uljin, 0.45 m (1 ft 6 in) in Sokcho, and 0.39 m (1 ft 3 in) in Gangneung were also recorded.[27] This was the first time since 1993 that South Korea saw a tsunami over 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in).[28] North Korea's state radio, reported by Yonhap News Agency, reported a tsunami warning, with possible 2.08 m (6 ft 10 in) waves.[29][30]

In Russia, there were tsunami warnings, including Sakhalin Island's west coast,[31] where evacuations were initially mentioned but later denied by Russia.[32][33] Warnings were also in place for Vladivostok and Nakhodka.[34] The Russian Emergencies Ministry said "response teams are ready to deal with the possible consequences of a tsunami".[35] However, officials in Vladivostok said no tsunami happened, and in Nakhodka, the tsunami was almost unnoticed.[36]

Impact[change | change source]

At least 245 people died in Ishikawa Prefecture; 106 in wajima, 103 in Suzu, 20 in Anamizu, eight in Noto, five in Nanao, two in Shika and one in Hakui.[37] Fifteen people died in the aftermath due to injuries or illnesses.[38] More than 80 percent of the deaths, because of collapsed homes.[39] Two people were killed by the tsunami.[40] At least 1,188 people were injured in Ishikawa Prefecture,[37] and as of 7 March, five people is missing.[41] National Police Agency said that 92 people were crushed to death, 49 died of suffocation or respiratory failure, 32 died from hypothermia, and three died of burns.

The earthquake caused buildings to collapse in Ishikawa Prefecture.[42] Around 36,000 homes lost power.[20] A fire broke out in Wajima, and damaged roads made it hard for firefighters to stop it.[43] Some people got stuck in collapsed homes but were eventually rescued. In Toyama Prefecture, roads cracked, and water pipes broke in Himi and Oyabe. In Niigata Prefecture, two people were injured, and there was liquefaction (when gas turns to liquid), causing sewer pipes to break and leaving many homes without water.[44]

Aftermath[change | change source]

The earthquake caused serious harm to people and the economy. Nomura Securities predicted a drop in Japan's economic growth due to the earthquake, with a potential loss of 23 to 50 billion yen. This is mainly because cities like Suzu, Wajima, and Nanao might see a halt in their economic activities. NHK warned that the financial losses could increase since damages to roads, houses, and factories haven't been fully considered yet. The effect on supply chains might not be as bad as it was in the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes.[45]

By 5 January, around 24,000 buildings in Ishikawa Prefecture were still without electricity. The Minister of Economy, Trade, and Industry, Ken Saito, said it's hard to tell when the power will be completely back.[45]

References[change | change source]

  1. Before Meiji period, this area belonged to Noto Province
  2. 2.0 2.1 "M 7.5 - 42 km NE of Anamizu, Japan". United States Geological Survey. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  3. "Magnitude 7.6 earthquake strikes Japan, tsunami warning issued". Channel News Asia. Reuters. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  4. "Japanese rescuers race to find survivors as quake death toll rises to 78". Al Jazeera. 4 January 2024. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  5. "令和5年5月5日14時42分頃の石川県能登地方の地震について" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "Strong quake prompts tsunami warning for Japan's northwestern coast". The Japan Times. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  7. Mulia, Iyan E.; Ishibe, Takeo; Satake, Kenji; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Murotani, Satoko (3 September 2020). "Regional probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment associated with active faults along the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan". Earth, Planets and Space. 72 (123): 123. Bibcode:2020EP&S...72..123M. doi:10.1186/s40623-020-01256-5. S2CID 221463717.
  8. Hurukawa, Nobuo; Harada, Tomoya (2013). "Fault plane of the 1964 Niigata earthquake, Japan, derived from relocation of the mainshock and aftershocks by using the modified joint hypocenter determination and grid search methods". Earth, Planets and Space. 65 (12): 1441–1447. Bibcode:2013EP&S...65.1441H. doi:10.5047/eps.2013.06.007. S2CID 73567424.
  9. Tamaki, Kensaku; Honza, Eiichi (20 October 1985). "Incipient subduction and deduction along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea". Tectonophysics. 119 (1–4): 381–406. Bibcode:1985Tectp.119..381T. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(85)90047-2. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  10. Satake, Kenji (2007). "Volcanic origin of the 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the Japan Sea" (PDF). Earth Planets Space. 59 (5): 381–390. Bibcode:2007EP&S...59..381S. doi:10.1186/BF03352698. S2CID 55372867.
  11. "Earthquake and Seismic Intensity Information part 2". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  12. National Earthquake Information Center (1 January 2023). "M 5.5 - 42 km NE of Anamizu, Japan". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  13. National Earthquake Information Center (1 January 2023). "M 6.2 - 4 km SSW of Anamizu, Japan". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  14. "Finite fault". United States Geological Survey. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
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  19. 19.0 19.1 "Tsunami warnings, advisories still in effect, officials urge caution". NHK. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 "Japan issues major tsunami warning for coastal prefecture after 7.6 magnitude earthquake". The Guardian. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "7.5-magnitude earthquake hits western Japan triggering tsunami warning". CNN. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  22. Zhanjiu, Higa (2 January 2024). "根こそぎ倒壊のビル、転覆した船… 能登の上空から見た甚大な被害" [Uprooted buildings, overturned ships... The extensive damage seen from above Noto] (in Japanese). The Asahi Shimbum. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  23. "石川・珠洲の海岸から100メートル浸水、津波か" [100m flooded from Ishikawa/Suzu coast, possibly a tsunami]. The Sankei Shimbum. 2 January 2024. p. ja. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  24. "津波注意報 午前10時にすべて解除 気象庁". NHK (in Japanese). 2 January 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  25. Ng, Kelly (1 January 2024). "Tsunami warning in Japan after strong earthquake". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
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  28. "韓国東海岸でも31年ぶりに50センチ超の津波を観測" [Tsunami over 50 centimeters observed on South Korea's east coast for the first time in 31 years] (in Japanese). Chosun Online. 2 January 2024. Archived from the original on 2 January 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
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  33. "На Сахалине объявили угрозу цунами после серии землетрясений в Японии" (in Russian). TASS. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
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  36. "能登半島地震でロシア極東各地にも津波警報発令 避難呼びかけも被害報告はなし" [Tsunami warning issued across Russia's Far East due to Noto Peninsula earthquake; no damage reported despite evacuation calls] (in Japanese). The Sankei Shimbum. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  37. 37.0 37.1 "Reiwa 6-nen Notohantō jishin ni yoru higai-tō no jōkyō ni tsuite (kiki kanri kansatsu-shitsu)" 令和6年能登半島地震による被害等の状況について(危機管理監室) [Regarding the status of damage caused by the 2024 Noto Peninsula Earthquake (Crisis Management Office)] (PDF) (in Japanese). Crisis Management Office, Ishikawa Prefecture. 19 March 2024. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  38. "[Higai jōkyō 28-nichi] Ishikawa ken de 236-nin shibō" 【被害状況 28日】石川県で236人死亡 [[Damage status: 28th] 236 people died in Ishikawa Prefecture] (in Japanese). NHK. 28 January 2024. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  39. "Shisha no 8-wari chō, kaoku tōkai de ken shimei kōhyō no 80 jinchū Notohantō jishin" 死者の8割超、家屋倒壊で 県氏名公表の80人中 能登半島地震 [More than 80% of fatalities occurred due to collapsed houses; names of 80 people released by prefecture in Noto Peninsula Earthquake]. Mainichi Shimbun (in Japanese). 18 January 2024. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 19 March 2024 – via Yahoo! Japan.
  40. Nishi, Akina; Ko, Ayami; Fukuoka, Ryuichiro (9 February 2024). "Regrets, sorrow: Residents had little time to escape tsunami". The Asahi Shimbun. Suzu. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  41. "Ryō wa 6-nen Notohantō jishin ni okeru anpi fumei-sha ichiranpyō" 令和6年能登半島地震における安否不明者一覧表 [List of people whose safety is unknown in the 2024 Noto Peninsula Earthquake] (PDF) (in Japanese). Crisis Management Office, Ishikawa Prefecture. 7 March 2024. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2024. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  42. "Magnitude 7.6 earthquake strikes Japan, triggering tsunami warning". Rappler. Reuters. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  43. Yilong, Chen (1 January 2024). "【日本元旦強震】輪島市發生火災、道路斷裂恐影響救火" [[Strong Earthquake on New Year’s Day, Japan] Fire breaks out in Wajima City, road breakage may affect firefighting] (in Chinese). Tai Sounds. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  44. "新潟市内で液状化現象を確認、断水も 石川で震度7" [Liquefaction phenomenon confirmed in Niigata city, water outage also occurred, seismic intensity 7 in Ishikawa] (in Japanese). Sankei Shimbun. 1 January 2024. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  45. 45.0 45.1 "Japanese firms rush to resume production as earthquake disrupts local economy". Reuters. 5 January 2024. Retrieved 8 January 2024.