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Waminoa on Plerogyra.jpg
Waminoa (orange-yellow) sp. on Plerogyra sp..
Scientific classification

The Acoelomorpha are a group of animals with features that were once put in the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms).

In 2004 molecular studies showed this was wrong.[1][2]

Now it is clear that their closest relatives are the Xenoturbellida, and the two groups make up the proposed new phylum, the Xenacoelomorpha.[3]

Most researchers believe them to be basal among the bilateria, slightly more derived than the Cnidaria. Recent results suggest that they (along with Xenoturbella) may lie near the base of the deuterostomes.[3] An ongoing collaborative research project has "the researchers ... confident that they can reach an agreement about where acoels fit in evolutionary history".[4]

"The results show that the two groups constitute a newly classified phylum... which the authors name the ’Xenacoelomorpha’. The xenacoelomorph phylum joins the three known phyla of deuterostomes: vertebrates (including humans), echinoderms (e.g., starfish), and hemichordates (acorn worms)".[5]

Acoels are almost entirely marine, living between grains of sediment, swimming as plankton, or crawling on algae. Acoels have a statocyst, which presumably helps them orient to gravity. Their soft bodies make them difficult to classify.[6]

References[change | change source]

  1. Wallberg, Andreas; Curini-Galletti, Marco; Ahmadzadeh, Afsaneh; Jondelius, Ulf (September 2007). "Dismissal of Acoelomorpha: Acoela and Nemertodermatida are separate early bilaterian clades". Zoologica Scripta. 36 (5): 509–523. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00295.x. S2CID 85599100.
  2. Baguñà, Jaume; Riutort, Marta (1 February 2004). "Molecular phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 82 (2): 168–193. doi:10.1139/z03-214.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Philippe, Hervé; Brinkmann, Henner; Copley, Richard R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Nakano, Hiroaki; Poustka, Albert J.; Wallberg, Andreas; Peterson, Kevin J.; Telford, Maximilian J. (February 2011). "Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella". Nature. 470 (7333): 255–258. doi:10.1038/nature09676. PMC 4025995. PMID 21307940.
  4. Maxmen, Amy (February 2011). "Evolution: A can of worms". Nature. 470 (7333): 161–162. doi:10.1038/470161a. PMID 21307912. S2CID 205062118.
  5. "GEE: Simple marine worms distantly related to humans". University College London. University College London. 10 February 2011. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015.
  6. Petrov, Anatoly; Hooge, Matthew; Tyler, Seth (May 2006). "Comparative morphology of the bursal nozzles in acoels (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)". Journal of Morphology. 267 (5): 634–648. doi:10.1002/jmor.10428. PMID 16485278. S2CID 32595353.