Agustín de Iturbide

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Agustín I
Copy of a portrait of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico,
Emperor of Mexico
Reign19 May 1822 – 19 March 1823
Coronation21 July 1822
PredecessorMonarchy established
SuccessorProvisional Government (Chronologically)
Maximilian I
(as Emperor)
Prime Ministers
President of the Regency of Mexico
In office28 September 1821 – 18 May 1822
PredecessorMonarchy established
SuccessorJuan Nepomuceno Almonte (Second Mexican Empire)
BornAgustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu
(1783-09-27)27 September 1783
Valladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain
(now Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico)
Died19 July 1824(1824-07-19) (aged 40)
Padilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico
26 October 1838
Mexico City Cathedral
SpouseAna María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz
IssueAgustín Jerónimo, Prince Imperial of Mexico
Princess Sabina
Princess Juana de Dios
Princess Josefa
Prince Ángel
Princess María de Jesús
Princess María de los Dolores
Prince Salvador María
Prince Felipe
Prince Agustín Cosme
Full name
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu
FatherJosé Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí
MotherMaría Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignatureAgustín I's signature

Agustín de Iturbide (27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824) and later known as Emperor Agustín I of Mexico was an officer in the royal Spanish army. Iturbide born in what was then called Valladolid, now Morelia, the provincial capital of Michoacán, on 27 September 1783. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral. The fifth child born to his parents, he was the only male to survive and eventually became head of the family. Iturbide's parents were part of the privileged landed class of Valladolid, owning agricultural land including the haciendas of Apeo and Guaracha as well as lands in nearby Quirio.

Iturbide's father, Joaquín de Iturbide, came from a family of the Basque gentry who were confirmed in nobility by King Juan II of Aragon. During the Mexican War of Independence and increased his influence outside the country. He even had credible plans for the reconquest of the old colony. For those reasons, no European noble would accept the offer of a Mexican crown. In Mexico itself, there was no Mexican noble family that the populace would accept as royalty. He was executed by firing squad on 19 July 1824.

His son Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte was the Pretender to the throne of Mexico and led a coalition of former royalists and long-time insurgents under his Plan of Iguala. The combined forces under Iturbide brought about Mexican independence in September 1821 A year later, he was proclaimed Emperor, reigning from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823, when he abdicated. In May 1823 he went into exile in Europe. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824, he was arrested and executed.