Career[change | change source]
He was a member of the Warsaw City Organization. In February 1863, he carried out an action to take over staff maps, and in June of the same year - the Cash Office of the Central Government Revenue and Treasury Commission of the Kingdom of Poland. Appointed the last insurgent warden of Warsaw, he held this position from December 10, 1863 to December 19, 1864, when he was accidentally arrested on Elektoralna Street. He was aware of the impossibility of reversing the fall of the uprising, but by issuing orders and proclamations he tried to maintain the impression that the municipal organization was still functioning. He had no permanent residence; he spent the night in the mill buildings in Solec, and spent his days reading newspapers in cafes. He consciously decided not to go out of town.
Death[change | change source]
He was imprisoned in the 10th pavilion of the Warsaw Citadel. He was executed on its slopes on February 17, 1865 together with Emanuel Szafarczyk. It was the last public execution of participants in the uprising in Warsaw.