Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (abbreviated ANWR) is in northeastern Alaska. It was created to protect and keep the area's Wildlife and wilderness.[1] Some of these are polar bears, grizzly bears, grey wolves, and caribou. Fish species include Dolly Varden, Arctic char, Lake trout and several kinds of salmon.[2] There are at least 194 species of birds that visit or live here.[3] The refuge totals 19,286,722 acres.[4]

In the ground under ANWR is one of the last major oil reserves in the United States.[5] There are debates on whether or not to allow oil drilling.[6] Those in favor have argued that removing the oil will make the U.S. less dependent on foreign supplies of oil. In the 1990s, the U.S. imported over half of the oil it used.[7] ANWR is also near the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. It contains large oil deposits that are already providing oil. But, the refuge land is a fragile natural environment. The area proposed for oil drilling is also the calving grounds for the Porcupine caribou herds.[8]

References[change | change source]

  1. "National Wildlife Refuge | Alaska: Wildlife and Habitat". US Fish and WIldlife Service. 2013. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  2. "National Wildlife Refuge Alaska: Fish of Arctic Refuge". US Fish and WIldlife Service. 2014. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  3. Arctic Wings: Birds of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Volume 2, ed. Stephen Charles Brown (Seattle: Mountaineers Books; Manomet, MA: Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, 2006), p. 11
  4. Encyclopedia of Politics of the American West, ed. Steven L. Danver (Washington DC: SAGE Publications, 2013), p. 178
  5. Congressional Record, V. 151, Pt. 4, March 11 to April 6 2005, ed. US Congress (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005), p. 4975
  6. Elizabeth Shogren (10 November 2005). "For 30 Years, a Political Battle Over Oil and ANWR". NPR News website. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  7. Regina Anne Kelly, Energy Supply and Renewable Resources (New York, NY: Facts On File, 2007), p. 38
  8. John G. Mitchell (1 August 2001). "Oil Field or Sanctuary?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 18 May 2014.