Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere. Like viruses that infect eukaryotes (plants, animals, and fungi) there are many different phage structures and functions.
Phages are typically made of an outer protein hull that has genetic material inside it. The genetic material may be single-stranded (ssRNA or ssDNA), or double-stranded (dsRNA or dsDNA). It may be between 5 and 500 kilobase pairs long with either circular or linear arrangement. Bacteriophages are usually between 20 and 200 nanometers in size.
Phages are everywhere there are bacteria, such as soils or the intestines of animals. They are very common in sea water: up to 9×108 virions per milliliter have been found in microbial mats at the surface, and up to 70% of marine bacteria may be infected by phages.
They have been used for over 90 years as an alternative to antibiotics in the former Soviet Union and Central Europe, as well as in France. They are a possible therapy against antibiotic resistant strains of many bacteria. On the other hand, some phages complicate biofilms involved in pneumonia and cystic fibrosis. They shelter the bacteria from drugs and so prolong the infection.
References[change | change source]
- McGrath S. & van Sinderen D. (eds) 2007. Bacteriophage: genetics and molecular biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-14-1. .
- Bacteriophage MS2
- Wommack K.E. & Colwell R.R. 2000. "Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 64 (1): 69–114. doi:10.1128/MMBR.64.1.69-114.2000. PMC 98987. PMID 10704475.
- Prescott L. 1993. Microbiology. Wm. C. Brown. ISBN 0-697-01372-3
- BBC Horizon 1997. The virus that cures – documentary about the history of phage medicine in Russia and the West
- Keen E.C. 2012. "Phage therapy: concept to cure". Frontiers in Microbiology 3: 238. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00238. PMC 3400130. PMID 22833738.