Baud

Various modulation schemes invented in the 20th century such as Phase-shift keying can make bit rates much higher than signal rates. In another example, gigabit ethernet has a symbol rate of 125MBd. Gigabit ethernet uses pulse-amplitude modulation and can transmit two bits of payload data per symbol. Gigabit ethernet uses four wires for transmission. It can transmit ${\displaystyle {\rm {125\;MBd\cdot 2\;{\tfrac {bit}{symbol}}\cdot 4=1000\;{\tfrac {Mbit}{s}}}}}$.