Biedermeier was a time in the arts and German literature, which occurred between 1815 and 1848. In 1815, the Congress of Vienna ended the Napoleonic Wars. In 1848, there were revolutions in many European Countries. Between 1815 and 1848, the middle class grew. During that time, the forces that had been active before the French Revolution rose to power again. Politically, the times were very hard, and there was a lot of repression. For this reason, most of the arts focused on apolitical life at home.
In painting, Biedermeier focused on landscapes, portraits, and perhaps still lifes, or genre paintings. There are almost no religious or historical paintings. Many painters wanted to copy or to resemble 17th century Dutch painters. Many paintings were realist, almost like a modern-day photograph. Interior portraits were typical for Biedermeier: there the idea was to show a fully furnished room, in all its details.