Bookbinding is the process of putting a book together. The pages are put inside a book covering, then attached to the spine (closed edge of the book) by sewing or glueing. Bookbinding is an artistic practice from many centuries ago but it has also been industrialized. Bookbinding machines were invented in the 19th century and most books are made in factories by mechanical mass production.
A person who binds books is called a bookbinder. Today, most hand-bound books are specially made, and more expensive than a factory-made book. Bookbinding is a specialized job. Bookbinders must be skilled in measuring, cutting, glueing, leather working, graphic arts, and fabric crafts, among other things.