Capoeira or the Dance of War by Johann Moritz Rugendas, 1825, published in 1835
|Focus||Kicking, Punching, Slapping, Headbutting, Acrobatics, Leg Sweeps, Knee/Elbow Strikes, Takedowns|
|Country of origin||Brazil|
Capoeira is a combination of martial art, sport and popular culture that developed out in Brazil, by African slaves and Brazilian natives, starting in the 16th century. It was made to give slaves a chance to escape and to survive. Capoeira was illegal in Brazil until the 1930s.
Capoeira uses strong and fast kicks, dodges and fast counter-attacks. It also uses acrobatics and simple take-downs.
History[change | change source]
As a form of martial arts for slaves[change | change source]
Capoeira's history probably begins with the beginning of African slavery in Brazil. When Portuguese colonists began exporting West African slaves, Brazil, with its vast territory, received most of the slaves, almost 40% of all slaves sent through the Atlantic Ocean.
Although rebellions were rare, capoeira was invented as a hope of survival for slaves if they managed to escape, as after an escape attempt, colonial agents were sent after the escapees. The martial arts was incorporated into a dance, to escape detection–with music and rhythmic moves, no suspicion could be raised regarding potential martial art training. Due to city growth, more slaves were brought to cities and so made capoeira more prominent and allowed it to be taught and practiced among more people. In Rio the colonial government tried to suppress it and established severe physical punishments to its practice.
Post-slavery[change | change source]
They used capoeiristas (capoeira dancers) as bodyguards and hitmen. In 1890, the Brazilian government prohibited capoeira as police identified it as an advantage in fighting and they didn’t want criminals to have this advantage. After this, anybody caught practising capoeira for any reason would be arrested and tortured by the police. Some practises still occurred in remote places with guards to warn of police.
By the 1920s, capoeira repression had declined. Mestre Bimba from Salvador, a strong fighter in both legal and illegal fights, thought capoeira was losing its martial roots due to the use of its playful side to entertain tourists. Bimba began developing the first systematic training method for capoeira, and in 1932 founded the first capoeira school and he called it Luta Regional Baiana as capoeira was illegal in name. By 1940, capoeira was legalized.
Today[change | change source]
Today, capoeira is viewed as one of the symbols of Brazilian culture all around the world and in 1970 it was taught outside of Brazil for the first time. Capoeira presentations, normally theatrical and with little martiality, are common sights around the world. The martial art part however, is still present and still disguised, just as it was in the time of slavery, and trickery is still present and expert dancers used. An attack can be disguised even as a friendly gesture, such is the expertise gone into the research of new moves. Capoeira is now a symbol of Brazilian culture, its ethnic amalgam, and of resistance to oppression.
References[change | change source]
- "Gangues do Rio: Capoeira era reprimida no Brasil (in Portuguese)". http://guiadoestudante.abril.com.br/estudar/historia/gangues-rio-capoeira-era-reprimida-brasil-435027.shtml.
- "A abolição (in Portuguese)". http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/historia/abolicao.
- CARDOSO, Fernando Henrique – Capitalismo e Escravidão no Brasil Meridional (1962), Editora Civilização Brasileira, ISBN 85-200-0635-3 (in Portuguese)
- "Código penal brasileiro - proibição da Capoeira – 1890 (in Portuguese)". http://pt.wikisource.org/wiki/C%C3%B3digo_penal_brasileiro_-_proibi%C3%A7%C3%A3o_da_capoeira_-_1890.
- SODRE, Muniz – Mestre Bimba: Corpo de Mandiga (2002), Livraria da Travessa, ISBN 85-86218-13-8 (in Portuguese)