A discipline in the sense of knowledge is a field of work or study. Examples include academic disciplines, like physics and mathematics, and other special fields of knowledge. In education they are often called "subjects", as in school subjects. Disciplines require training and qualification. Qualified people are able to use the methods of a discipline, and have knowledge of that discipline. Thus, for example, a chemist knows chemistry, and can carry out chemical analysis in a standard chemical laboratory. The discipline of palaeography, the study of ancient writing, covers knowledge of older forms of writing, and how to study, decipher and translate examples of early writing.
- A. Abbott. 1988. The system of professions: an essay on the division of expert labor. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-00069-5