Egyptian pyramids

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A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. From right to left are the Great Pyramid of Khufu, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of Menkaure. The three smaller pyramids in the foreground are associated with Menkaure's pyramid.
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in hieroglyphs

The Pyramids of Egypt are among the largest structures ever built and are one of the most important examples of Ancient Egyptian civilization.[1] Most were built during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.[2]

When the pyramid was almost finished, casing blocks of white limestone were laid on top of the main pyramid blocks. Each casing block was then trimmed so that the outer surface of the pyramid would be smooth and white.

The casing blocks from the Great Pyramid were all removed in the 14th and 15th centuries A.D. and used to build the city of Cairo. Some casing blocks still remain on the top of the pyramid next to Khufu's (belonging to Khafra).

The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The pharaohs were buried in pyramids of different sizes from before the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the Middle Kingdom.

Three small pyramids were built on the eastern side of the great pyramid. These pyramids were built for khufs queens.

A small satellite pyramid was built near the queens' pyramids. Some experts believe that this may have been built as a symbolic tomb for Khufu's ka (spirit).

Surrounding the pyramid there are several hundred mastaba tombs of nobles. The nobles wanted to be buried close to their pharaoh so that they would stay close to him in the next life.

Construction dates[change | change source]

There are about eighty pyramids known today from ancient Egypt. The three largest and best-preserved of these were built at Giza in the Old Kingdom. The best-known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the 'Great Pyramid'.

The following table lays out the dates of construction of most of the major pyramids. Each pyramid is identified by the pharaoh who ordered it built, their approximate reign and its place.

Pyramid / Pharaoh Reign Field
Djozer c. 2630 - 2612 bc Saqqara aramida
Sneferu (bent) c. 2612 - 2589 bc Dashur
Sneferu (red) c. 2612 - 2589 bc Dashur
Sneferu (ruined) c. 2612 - 2589 bc Meidum
Khufu c. 2589 - 2566 bc Giza
Djedefre c. 2566 - 2558 bc Abu Rawash
Khafre c. 2558 - 2532 bc Giza
Menkaure c. 2532 - 2504 bc Giza
Sahure c. 2487 - 2477 bc Abusir
Neferirkare Kakai c. 24 77 - 2467 bc Abusir
Nyuserre Ini c. 24 16 - 2392 bc Abusir
Amenemhat I c. 1991 - 1962 bc Lisht
Senusret I c. 1971 - 1926 bc Lisht
Senusret II c. 1897 - 1878 bc el-Lahun
Amenemhat III c. 1860 - 1814 bc Hawara

Other pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. The Great Pyramid of Khufu. Retrieved April 12, 2005. "The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the largest pyramid in Egypt and was the tallest man-made structure in the world until 1888."
  2. Michael Ritter (2003) [1] Dating the Pyramids. Retrieved April 13, 2005

Other websites[change | change source]