High-functioning autism

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High-functioning autism (HFA) is an informal term given to autistic people who do not have an intellectual disability, but may exhibit difficulties in in communication, recognising emotions, and social interaction.[1][2][3] The overlap between HFA and Asperger syndrome is subject to controversy; both are autism spectrum conditions.

Many medical professionals, autistic people, and supporters of autistic rights disagree with the use of "functioning" labels, as many "high-" or "low-functioning" autistic people may be able to function differently at different times.[4] "Autism with/without intellectual disability" is preferred.

References[change | change source]

  1. Sanders, James Ladell (2009). "Qualitative or Quantitative Differences Between Asperger's Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (11): 1560–1567. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0798-0. ISSN 0162-3257. PMID 19548078. S2CID 26351778.
  2. Carpenter, Laura Arnstein; Soorya, Latha; Halpern, Danielle (2009). "Asperger's Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism". Pediatric Annals. 38 (1): 30–5. doi:10.3928/00904481-20090101-01. PMID 19213291.
  3. Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela (2 March 2019). "Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in highfunctioning autism spectrum disorders" (PDF). PNAS. 107 (9): 4389–4394. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910249107. PMC 2840168. PMID 20160081.
  4. Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Kapp, Steven K.; Lester, Jessica Nina; Sasson, Noah J.; Hand, Brittany N. (1 March 2021). "Avoiding Ableist Language: Suggestions for Autism Researchers". Autism in Adulthood. 3 (1): 18–29. doi:10.1089/aut.2020.0014. ISSN 2573-9581.