High-functioning autism (HFA) is an informal term given to autistic people who do not have an intellectual disability, but may exhibit difficulties in in communication, recognising emotions, and social interaction. The overlap between HFA and Asperger syndrome is subject to controversy; both are autism spectrum conditions.
Many medical professionals, autistic people, and supporters of autistic rights disagree with the use of "functioning" labels, as many "high-" or "low-functioning" autistic people may be able to function differently at different times. "Autism with/without intellectual disability" is preferred.
References[change | change source]
- Sanders, James Ladell (2009). "Qualitative or Quantitative Differences Between Asperger's Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (11): 1560–1567. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0798-0. ISSN 0162-3257. PMID 19548078. S2CID 26351778.
- Carpenter, Laura Arnstein; Soorya, Latha; Halpern, Danielle (2009). "Asperger's Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism". Pediatric Annals. 38 (1): 30–5. doi:10.3928/00904481-20090101-01. PMID 19213291.
- Andari, Elissar; Duhamel, Jean-René; Zalla, Tiziana; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Leboyer, Marion; Sirigu, Angela (2 March 2019). "Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in highfunctioning autism spectrum disorders" (PDF). PNAS. 107 (9): 4389–4394. doi:10.1073/pnas.0910249107. PMC 2840168. PMID 20160081.
- Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Kapp, Steven K.; Lester, Jessica Nina; Sasson, Noah J.; Hand, Brittany N. (1 March 2021). "Avoiding Ableist Language: Suggestions for Autism Researchers". Autism in Adulthood. 3 (1): 18–29. doi:10.1089/aut.2020.0014. ISSN 2573-9581.