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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic irreversible and fatal disease caused by a progressive decline in lung function.[1][2]

The term pulmonary fibrosis means scarring of lung tissue and is the cause of worsening dyspnea (shortness of breath). Fibrosis is usually associated with a poor prognosis.[1][2][3]

IPF belongs to a large group of more than 200 lung diseases known as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), characterized by the involvement of lung interstitium.

IPF usually occurs in adults of between 50 and 70 years of age, particularly those with a history of cigarette smoking, and affects more men than women. Treatment to slow down the progression of the disease may include nintedanib or pirfenidone.[4]


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  1. 1.0 1.1 Raghu G, Collard HR, Egan JJ, et al. (2011). "An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 183 (6): 788–824. doi:10.1164/rccm.2009-040GL. PMC 5450933. PMID 21471066.
  2. 2.0 2.1 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) was approved by the ATS board of directors, June 2013 and by the ERS Steering Committee, March 2013. Am Respir Crit Care Med. 188 (6): 733–748. September 15, 2013. PubMed
  3. Meltzer EB, Noble PW (2008). "Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 3 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-3-8. PMC 2330030. PMID 18366757.
  4. Raghu, Ganesh; Rochwerg, Bram; Zhang, Yuan; Garcia, Carlos A. Cuello; Azuma, Arata; Behr, Juergen; Brozek, Jan L.; Collard, Harold R.; Cunningham, William; Homma, Sakae; Johkoh, Takeshi; Martinez, Fernando J.; Myers, Jeffrey; Protzko, Shandra L.; Richeldi, Luca; Rind, David; Selman, Moisés; Theodore, Arthur; Wells, Athol U.; Hoogsteden, Henk; Schünemann, Holger J. (15 July 2015). "An Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline: Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. An Update of the 2011 Clinical Practice Guideline". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 192 (2): e3–e19. doi:10.1164/rccm.201506-1063ST. PMID 26177183.