Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

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Destroyed Pakistani M4A1 Sherman tank during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

The Indo-Pakistani Fight of 1965 was a war that took place between April 1965 and 23 September 1965 between Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War. Both countries fought over the disputed Himalayan region of Kashmir. The first Kashmir War took place in 1947. The war began after Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar. In this operation, Pakistan wanted to bring forces into Indian-held Jammu and Kashmir to conquer the area of Kashmir ruled by India.[1] The five-week war caused thousands of deaths on both sides. It ended when India asked the United Nations (UN) for ceasefire.

Details[change | change source]

The war was fought on the western front after Pakistan launched "Operation Gibraltar" - a covert offensive in which up to 30,000 fighters were pushed across the ceasefire line into Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. India retaliated by crossing the international border at Lahore.[2] At midnight on 6 September, India crossed the international border between India and Pakistan and attacked Lahore and Kasur. The Pakistan Army and Air Force prepared for war in a hurry and started attacks on India. The attacks also started in the areas of Jammu and Kashmir. The war was fought on the border until 22 September when India asked for ceasefire. On 8 September, Pakistani pilot Muhammad Mahmood Alam (M.M.Alam) shot down five Indian jets in less than a minute and held the record.[3] Pakistan very small army defended it's second largest city against a huge Indian army.

The war affected a lot of people and the thousands of Indian families had to leave their house and belongings and move to safer areas.[4]

Who won the war?[change | change source]

It has been a real confusion on who won the war. Both nations believe it has been won by them but no one is sure who really won the war.

India won the war[change | change source]

Some Indians believe they won the war they occupied 690 km2 while Pakistan occupied 250 km2 in Kashmir and Rajasthan. The Indian army killed 3,800 Pakistanis and Pakistan army killed 3,000 Indian soldiers.[5][6]

  • Retired American diplomat Dennis Kux: "Although both sides lost heavily in men and material, and neither gained a decisive military advantage, India had the better of the war. Delhi achieved its basic goal of thwarting Pakistan's attempt to seize Kashmir by force. Pakistan gained nothing from a conflict which it had instigated."[7]

Pakistan won the war[change | change source]

Most Pakistanis believe that Pakistan was victorious because Indian Army accepted defeat and asked the United Nations for ceasefire. The Pakistan Air Force is praised for its performance as it destroyed between 90 and 105 IAF aircraft while it lost 19-20 of its own. In Pakistan, it is celebrated as a public holiday known as Defense Day on 6 September.[source?]

Records and achievements[change | change source]

  • M.M.Alam of Pakistan Army shot five Indian jets in 30 seconds and a total of 9 jets in 1 minute[source?]
  • The war was the second largest tank battle since World War 2.

References[change | change source]

  1. Chandigarh, India – Main News. Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
  2. "Are India's plans to celebrate 1965 war 'victory' in 'bad taste'?". 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
  3. "1965 War". Archived from the original on 2017-05-07. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  4. "Everything You Need To Know About The 1965 Indo Pak War". Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  5. "Who Really Won the India-Pakistan 1965 War?". The Quint. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  6. Simha, Rakesh Krishnan (2015-09-02). "1965 War: Why India quit when it was winning". Retrieved 2019-09-06.
  7. "Are India's plans to celebrate 1965 war 'victory' in 'bad taste'?". 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2019-09-06.