Indo-Pakistani War of 1965

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The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a war that took place between April 1965 and 23 September 1965 between Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War. Both countries fought over the disputed Himalayan region of Kashmir. The first Kashmir War took place in 1947. The war began after Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar. In this operation, Pakistan wanted to bring forces into Indian-held Jammu and Kashmir to conquer the area of Kashmir ruled by India.[1] The five-week war caused thousands of deaths on both side. Ceasefire was declared through UNSC (United Nations Security Council) Resolution 211. The Tashkent Declaration was signed between India and Pakistan on 10 January 1966 to resolve the war .

Details[change | change source]

The war was fought on the western front after Pakistan launched "Operation Gibraltar" - a covert offensive in which up to 30,000 fighters were pushed across the ceasefire line into Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. India retaliated by crossing the international border at Lahore.[2] At midnight on 6 September, India crossed the international border between India and Pakistan and attacked Lahore and Kasur. The Pakistan Army and Air Force prepared for war in a hurry and started attacks on India. The attacks also started in the areas of Jammu and Kashmir. The war was fought on the border until 22 September when UN asked for ceasefire.[3] Pakistan army had to face very heavy causalities.

The war affected a lot of people and the thousands of Pakistani families had to leave their house and belongings and move to safer areas because of India's capture of Lahore.[4]

Who won the war?[change | change source]

It has been a real confusion on who won the war. Both nations believe it has been won by them but no one is sure who really won the war.

Most Pakistanis believe that Pakistan was victorious . In Pakistan, it is celebrated as a public holiday known as Defense Day on 6 September.[5][6][7]

Records and achievements[change | change source]

  • M.M.Alam of Pakistan Army shot five Indian jets in 30 seconds[8]
  • The war was the second largest tank battle since World War 2.

References[change | change source]

  1. Chandigarh, India – Main News. Retrieved on 2011-04-14.
  2. "Are India's plans to celebrate 1965 war 'victory' in 'bad taste'?". 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
  3. "1965 War". Archived from the original on 2017-05-07. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  4. "Everything You Need To Know About The 1965 Indo Pak War". Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  5. "September 6: A day to remember the sacrifices of Pakistan's martyrs". Dawn. 7 September 2018.
  6. "Rare photos from 1965 Pakistan-India war". Retrieved 2023-07-12.
  7. "MM Alam: the outstanding hero of the 1965 war". Retrieved 2023-07-12.
  8. Werrell, Kenneth P. (2005). Sabres Over MiG Alley: The F-86 and the Battle for Air Superiority in Korea (illustrated ed.). Naval Institute Press. p. 233. ISBN 9781591149330.