Kargil War also called as the Kargil conflict,[note (I)] was an armed conflict between Indian and Pakistani forces that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and along the Line of Control. In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay (Hindi: विजय, lit. "Victory") which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Pakistan backed militants into areas on the Indian side of the Line of Control (LoC) to occupy military posts vacated in the winter. India responded by launching a major military and diplomatic offensive to drive out the Pakistani infiltrators. Reportedly, the Pakistan infiltration in the Kargil sector was reported by the local shepherds. The Indian Army launched a number of patrols to the area to estimate the extent of the infiltration. Initially, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri militants, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff revealed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid. The Indian Army, later on supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC within two months of the conflict that were trespass by the infiltrators, according to official count, an estimated 75%–80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground was back under Indian control. Fearing large-scale increase in seriousness in the military conflict, the international community, led by the United States, increased diplomatic pressure on Pakistan to withdraw forces from remaining Indian territory. Faced with the possibility of international separation, the already fragile Pakistani economy was weakened further. The morale of Pakistani forces after the withdrawal declined as many units of the Northern Light Infantry suffered heavy casualties. The Pakistani government refused to accept the dead bodies of many officers, which provoked anger and protests in the Northern Areas. Pakistan initially did not admitted many of its casualties, but Nawaz Sharif later said that over 4,000 Pakistani troops were killed in the operation and that Pakistan had lost the conflict. The Indian casualties during the conflict stood at 527 soldiers killed, and 1,363 wounded.
The conflict officially came to an end on July 26, with India regaining its earlier hold on Kargil. 26 July, since then, is celebrated in India every year as Vijay Diwas, or Victory Day. India registered decisive military and diplomatic victory in the war.
The Kargil war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain.
References[change | change source]
- "What you should be knowing about the Kargil War". India Today. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/kargil-war-vijay-diwas-facts/1/454125.html. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- It is also sometimes referred to as Operation Vijay Kargil so as to distinguish it from Operation Vijay, the operation by the Military of India that led to the capture of Goa, Daman and Diu and Anjidiv Islands.
- "1999 Kargil Conflict". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/kargil-99.htm. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Joshi, Arun (2007). Eyewitness Kashmir: Teetering on Nuclear War. India Research Press. p. 272. ISBN 9788183860048. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=C6f4qEBZRe4C&pg=PA272&dq=Operation%20Vijay%20codename&f=false#v=onepage&q=Operation%20Vijay%20codename&f=false. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Wolpert, Stanley (14 Aug 2010). "Recent Attempts to Resolve the Conflict". India and Pakistan: Continued Conflict or Cooperation?. University of California Press. pp. 73. ISBN 9780520271401.
- Bahl, Y (2000). "The Shepherds Story". Kargil Blunder: Pakistan's Plight, India's Victory. Manas Publications. p. 172. ISBN 9788170491200. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=zf1uAAAAMAAJ&dq=Local+shepherds+reported+about+the+pakistan+infiltration+kargil&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=%22It+has+been+reported+by+a+section+of+the+press+that+it+was+some+local+shepherds+who+informed+the+army+about+the+presence+of+Pakistani+intruders+on+our+side%22. "It has been reported by a section of the press that it was some local shepherds who informed the army about the presence of Pakistani intruders on our side of LOC"
- Shastri, Amita; Wilson, A. Jeyaratnam (2013). The Post-Colonial States of South Asia: Political and Constitutional Problems. Routledge. ISBN 9781136118746. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Fnv5sQXOlVAC&pg=PT469&dq=two%20local%20shepherds%20in%20the%20kargil%20region&f=false#v=onepage&q=two%20local%20shepherds%20in%20the%20kargil%20region&f=false. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Tom Clancy; Tony Zinni; Tony Koltz (2004). Battle Ready. Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 0-399-15176-1.
- "Pak commander blows the lid on Islamabad's Kargil plot". 12 June 2009. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/as-spell-binding-as-the-guns-of-navarone/475330/. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Sharif admits he let down Vajpayee on Kargil conflict". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 10 September 2007. http://www.hindu.com/2007/09/10/stories/2007091059781400.htm. Retrieved 6 October 2007.
- Nawaz, Shuja, Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army, and the Wars Within, p. 420 (2007)
- Ali, Tariq. "Bitter Chill of Winter". London Review of Books=. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v23/n08/ali_01_.html. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Colonel Ravi Nanda (1999). Kargil: A Wake Up Call. Vedams Books. ISBN 81-7095-074-0. Online summary of the Book
- Kargil: where defence met diplomacy - India's then Chief of Army Staff VP Malik, expressing his views on Operation Vijay. Hosted on Daily Times; The Fate of Kashmir By Vikas Kapur and Vipin Narang Stanford Journal of International Relations; Book review of "The Indian Army: A Brief History by Maj Gen Ian Cardozo" - Hosted on IPCS
- R. Dettman, Paul (2001). "Kargil War Operations". India Changes Course: Golden Jubilee to Millennium. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 119–120. ISBN 9780275973087.
- Samina Ahmed. "Diplomatic Fiasco: Pakistan's Failure on the Diplomatic Front Nullifies its Gains on the Battlefield" (Belfer Center for International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government)
- Daryl Lindsey and Alicia Montgomery. "Coup d'itat: Pakistan gets a new sheriff". salon.com. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/1999/10/13/reacts/print.html. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "War in Kargil - The CCC's summary on the war" (PDF). http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/research/kargil/war_in_kargil.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Samina Ahmed. "A Friend for all Seasons." (Belfer Center for International Affairs, Kennedy School of Government)
- "Rediff On The NeT: Pakistan refuses to take even officers' bodies". rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/news/1999/jul/11karg1.htm. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
- "press release issued in New Delhi regarding bodies of two Pakistan Army Officers"
- Second-Class Citizens by M. Ilyas Khan, The Herald (Pakistan), July 2000. Online scanned version of the article(PDF)
- Musharraf and the truth about Kargil - The Hindu 25 September 2006
- "Over 4000 soldier's killed in Kargil: Sharif". The Hindu. http://hindu.com/2003/08/17/stories/2003081702900800.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Kapur, S. Paul (2007). Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia (23rd ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0804755498.
- Chakraborty, A. K.. "Kargil War Brings Into Sharp Focus India's Commitment to Peace". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2000/fjul2000/f210720001.html. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Breakdown of casualties into Officers, JCOs, and Other Ranks". Parliament of India Website. http://184.108.40.206/lsq/quest.asp?qref=51302. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- "Complete Roll of Honour of Indian Army's Killed in Action during Op Vijay". Indian Army. Archived from the original on December 22, 2007. https://web.archive.org/web/20071222013826/http://www.indianarmy.nic.in/martyrs/home.jsp?operation=28&hidrecord=10&FormBugs_Page=1#Form. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- "Official statement giving breakdown of wounded personnel". Parliament of India Website. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080216231524/http://220.127.116.11/rsq/quest.asp?qref=3798. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- SarDesai, D. R (2007). India: The Definitive History. Westview Press. p. 450. ISBN 9780813343525. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=UbpiBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA450&dq=Kargil+war+officially+came+to+an+end&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjt_pGeyvXNAhVGOI8KHcymDvsQ6AEILjAD#v=onepage&q=Kargil%20war%20officially%20came%20to%20an%20end&f=false. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Wilson, Peter (2003). Wars, Proxy-wars and Terrorism: Post Independent India. Mittal Publications. p. 143. ISBN 9788170998907. Https://books.google.co.in/books?id=qYK0BhcgwaQC&q=decisive+kargil&hl=en#v=snippet&q=decisive%20kargil&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Singh, Danvir (Col) (2014). Kashmir's Death Trap: Tales of Perfidy and Valour. Lancer Publishers LLC. ISBN 9781940988139. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=QuJMBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT122&dq=Kargil+war+officially+came+to+an+end+on+july+26&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2pZvsy_XNAhXLRI8KHa-WAfoQ6AEIGzAA#v=onepage&q=Kargil%20war%20officially%20came%20to%20an%20end%20on%20july%2026&f=false. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Lyon, Peter (2008). Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 81. ISBN 9781576077122. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=vLwOck15eboC&pg=PA96&dq=Kargil+war+peter+lyon&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjp6p2p3PXNAhULq48KHXjdAXYQ6AEIGzAA#v=onepage&q=India%20regaining%20its%20earlier%20hold%20on%20kargil&f=false. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- R. Dettman, Paul. "Kargil"war"repercussions" (in English). India Changes Course: Golden Jubilee to Millennium (first ed.). United states of America: Praeger Publishers. p. 130,131,133,153. Https://books.google.de/books?id=8p19H4UwE_AC&pg=PA130&dq=kargil+war+indian+victory&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WL2DVbHkFMP4ywOC14XQBA&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAw#v=snippet&q=%20indian%20victory&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Carranza, Mario Esteban (2009). South Asian Security and International Nuclear Order. Ashgate. p. 82&90. ISBN 978-0754675419. Https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JjtcVRsL4JIC&pg=PA82&dq=Kargil+War+India+won+diplomatic+and&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XVqJVYjsNefD7gauz4GoCA&ved=0CFQQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=won%20the%20kargil%20war&f=false.
- Arming without Aiming: India's Military Modernization By Stephen P. Cohen, Sunil Dasgupta pg. 2002
- Wilcox. Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: The One, The Few, and The Many (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0275973087. Https://books.google.co.in/books?id=6HFq0eyEK4QC&pg=PA259&dq=India+won+kargil&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HISVVcfRNMPjuQST9YCQCw&ved=0CB8Q6AEwBDge#v=snippet&q=India%20won%20a%20military%20and%20victory%20&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- India's emerging security strategy, missile defense, and arms control. DIANE Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-1428982611. Https://books.google.co.in/books?id=cA2ecrVgayoC&dq=India+won+kargil&q=decisive+indian+victory+kargil#v=onepage&q=India%20won%20kargil&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Berlitz: India Pocket Guide. Apa Publications (UK) Limited. 2013. ISBN 978-1780047577. Https://books.google.co.in/books?id=GfkxBgAAQBAJ&dq=decisive+indian+victory+kargil&q=decisive+indian+victory+kargil#v=snippet&q=decisive%20indian%20victory%20kargil&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Davis, Zachary (2011). The India-Pakistan Military Standoff: Crisis and Escalation in South Asia. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 5. ISBN 9780230109384. Https://books.google.co.in/books?id=0dXHAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA5&dq=kargil+war+indian+victory&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CC8Q6AEwB2oVChMIwefX-Y2qyAIVWAuOCh2JEQB3#v=onepage&q=kargil%20war%20indian%20victory&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- Perkovich, George (2001). India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation. University of California Press. p. 479. ISBN 9780520232105. Https://books.google.co.in/books?id=UDA9dUryS8EC&pg=PA479&dq=kargil+war+indian+victory&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCkQ6AEwBmoVChMIwefX-Y2qyAIVWAuOCh2JEQB3#v=onepage&q=kargil%20war%20indian%20victory%20&f=false. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
Footnotes[change | change source]
- ^ Note (I): Names for the conflict: There have been various names for the conflict. During the actual fighting in Kargil, the Indian Government was careful not to use the term "war", calling it a "war-like situation", even though both nations indicated that they were in a "state of war". Terms like Kargil "conflict", Kargil "incident" or the official military assault, "Operation Vijay", were thus preferred. After the end of the war however, the Indian Government increasingly called it the "Kargil War", even though there had been no official declaration of war. Other less popularly used names included "Third Kashmir War" and Pakistan's codename given to the infiltration: "Operation Badr".