List of Kurdish states, dynasties and countries

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This list is a list of Kurdish states, dynasties and countries.

List[change | change source]

Direct Kurdish states, dynasties and countries[change | change source]

Middle age

  • Sadakiyans (770–827)
  • Shaddadids (951–1199)[1][2][3]
  • Rawwadids* (955–1071) – They were Arab origin, later Kurdicized.[4]
  • Hasanuyids (959–1014)[5]
  • Marwanids (983–1096)[6]
  • Annazids (990/991–1117)[7]
  • Hazaraspids (1115–1425)[8]
  • Ayyubids (1171–1341) – Saladin, the founder of the dynasty, was a Kurd.[9][10][11]
  • Principality of Bitlis (1187–1847)
  • Emirate of Çemişgezek (13th century–1663)
  • Principality of Ardalan (14th century–1865)
  • Principality of Donboli (1210–1799)
  • Emirate of Hasankeyf (1232–1524)
  • Emirate of Bingöl (1231–1864)
  • Emirate of Mukri (14th century–19th century)
  • Emirate of Bahdinan (1339–1843)
  • Principality of Mahmudi (1406–1839)
  • Emirate of Pazooka (1499–1587)
  • Emirate of Soran (before 1514–1836)
  • Principality of Suleyman (15th century–1838)
  • Emirate of Şirvan (?–1840s)
  • Emirate of Bohtan (?–1833)
  • Principality of Pinyaşi (1548–1823)

Modern period

  • Kingdom of Kurdistan (1921–1924/1925)
  • Republic of Ararat (1927–1931)
  • Republic of Mahabad (1946–1946)
  • Islamic Emirate of Byara (2001–2003)

Present-day

  • Kurdistan Region (1992–)[a]
  • Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria (2013–)[b]

Other dynasties of Kurdish origin[change | change source]

  • Safavids (1501–1722/1736) – The dynasty was partly or wholly of Kurdish origin.[12][13][14]
  • Zand dynasty* (1751–1794) – Some academians accepts the Zand dynasty a Kurdish dynasty[15] and founder of the dynasty, Karim Khan a Kurd.[16][17]

References[change | change source]

  1. Bosworth 1996a, p. 151: "The Shaddādids were another of the dynasties which arose in north-western Persia during the 'Daylamī interlude', and it is probable that they were of Kurdish origin."
  2. Peacock 2000: "SHADDADIDS [...] Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani."
  3. Kennedy 2016, p. 215: "The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/ tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Azarbayjan (...)"
  4. Peacock 2017.
  5. Kennedy 2016, p. 215: "The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/ tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Azarbayjan (...)"
  6. Bosworth 1996b, p. 89: "The Marwānids of Diyār Bakr, Khilāt and Malāzgird were Kurdish in origin."
  7. Kennedy 2016, p. 215: "The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/ tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Azarbayjan (...)"
  8. Bosworth 2003, p. 93: "HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs (...)"
  9. Riley-Smith 2008, p. 64.
  10. Laine 2015, p. 133.
  11. Lewis 2002, p. 166.
  12. Matthee 2005, p. 17; Matthee 2008.
  13. Amoretti & Matthee 2009.
  14. Savory 2008, p. 8.
  15. Meho & Maglaughlin 2001, p. 308.
  16. Wilber 1981, p. 65.
  17. Jwaideh 2006, p. 17.

Sources[change | change source]

  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2008). The Crusades, Christianity, and Islam. Columbia Universty Press. pp. 64. ISBN 978-0-231-14625-8. Saladin's relative obscurity in Muslim history was understandable. He was a Kurd.
  • Laine, James W. (2015). Meta-Religion: Religion and Power in World History. California Universty Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-520-95999-6. A Kurd, Saladin was born in Iraq (in Tikrit, Saddam Hussein's hometown), and became famous in medieval legend for his chivalrous exchanges with Richard the Lionheart, commander of the Third Crusade.
  • Lewis, Bernard (2002). Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-158766-5. A Kurdish officer called Salāh al-Dīn, better known in the West as Saladin, went to Egypt, where he served as Wazir to the Fațimids while representing the interests of Nūr al-Din. In 1171 Saladin declared the Fațimid Caliphate at an end.
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2016). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 9781317376392. The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/ tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Azarbayjan (...)
  • Peacock, Andrew (2000). "SHADDADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. SHADDADIDS [...] Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani.
  • Bosworth, C.E (1996a). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-231-10714-3. The Shaddādids were another of the dynasties which arose in north-western Persia during the 'Daylamī interlude', and it is probable that they were of Kurdish origin.
  • Aḥmad, K. M. (1985). "ʿANNAZIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. II. Fasc. 1. pp. 97–98. ANNAZIDS [...] a Kurdish dynasty (...)
  • Bosworth, C.E (1996b). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-231-10714-3. The Marwānids of Diyār Bakr, Khilāt and Malāzgird were Kurdish in origin.
  • Ashtiany, Julia; Johnstone, T. M; Latham, J. D; Serjeant, R. B; Smith, G. Rex, eds. (1990). Abbasid Belles-Lettres. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0-521-24016-1. (...) the Marwanids of Mayyafaraqin, were Kurdish.
  • Bosworth, C. E. (1968). "The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D 1000-1217". In Boyle, John Andrew (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran: The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. Vol. 5. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-06936-6. The Marwānids of Diyārbakr, Akhlāt, and Malāzgird [...] were also of Kurdish origin (...)
  • Peacock, Andrew (2017). "RAWWADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. RAWWADIDS [...] a family of Arab descent [...] Their Kurdicized descendants ruled over Azerbaijan and parts of Armenia in the second half of the 10th and much of the 11th century.
  • Bosworth, C. Edmund (2003). "HAZĀRASPIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XII. Fasc. 1. p. 93. HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs (...)
  • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia; Matthee, Rudi (2009). "Ṣafavid Dynasty". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. Of Kurdish ancestry, the Ṣafavids started as a Sunnī mystical order (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2005). The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900. Princeton Universty Press. p. 18. The Safavids, as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2008). "SAFAVID DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. As Persians of Kurdish ancestry and of a non-tribal background, the Safavids (...)
  • Savory, Roger (2008). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VIII. Fasc. 1. p. 8. This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams.
  • Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development. Syracuse University Press. pp. 17. ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7. (...) Kurdish leader, Karim Khan Zand (...)
  • Wilber, Donald Newton (1981) [1948]. Iran, Past and Present: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Princeton University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4008-5747-0. (...) Muhammad Karim Khan, a Kurd of the Zand tribe (...)
  • Meho, Lokman I; Maglaughlin, Kelly L., eds. (2001). Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 308. ISBN 978-0-313-31543-5. Karim Khan Zand, the founder of the Kurdish Zand dynasty (...)

Notes[change | change source]

  1. It is an autonomous region in Iraq.
  2. It is an autonomous region in Syria.