List of Kurdish states, dynasties and countries

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This list is a list of Kurdish states, dynasties and countries.

List[change | change source]

Ancestors of the Kurds[change | change source]

  • Gutian dynasty of Sumer (c. 2199–2119 BC) – Qurti, Kuti, Gutei or the Gutians, probably played a role in the ethnogenesis of the Kurds.[1][2][3]

Direct Kurdish states and dynasties[change | change source]

Map (greatest borders) Notes
Sadakiyans
(770–827)
Shaddadids
(951–1199)[4][5][6]
Rawadids shaddadids nakhchivan1.png
Rawwadids*
(955–1071)
Rawadids map.png

They were Arab origin, later Kurdicized.[7]

Hasanuyids
(959–1014)[6][8]
Hasanwayhids map.png
Marwanids
(983–1096)[9][6][8]
Marwanids dynasty.jpg
Annazids
(990/991–1117)[6]

Hazaraspids
(1115–1425)[10]

Ayyubids
(1171–1341)
AyyubidGreatest.png Saladin, the founder of the dynasty, was a Kurd.[11][12][13]

Modern period

Map
Kingdom of Kurdistan Flag of Kingdom of Kurdistan (1922-1924).svg
(1921–1924/1925)
Kingdom of kurdistan 1923.png
Republic of Ararat Kurdish flag (Khoiboun).png
(1927–1931)
Ağrıcumhuriyeti.png
Republic of Mahabad Flag of the Republic of Mahabad.svg
(1946–1946)
Republic of mahabad and iranian azerbaijan 1945 1946.png

Present-day

Map Notes
Kurdistan Region Flag of Kurdistan.svg
(1992–)
Iraqi Kurdistan on world map.png It is an recognized autonomous region in Iraq.
AANESa De facto SA-NES Flag.svg
(2013–)
Map of Rojava cantons march 22.png It is an unrecognized autonomous region established under Kurdish leadership in Syria.
a It is an abbreviation name of Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.

Other dynasties of Kurdish origin[change | change source]

Map (greatest borders) Notes
Safavid dynasty
(1501–1722)
The maximum extent of the Safavid Empire under Shah Abbas I.png The dynasty was partly or wholly of Kurdish ancestry.[14][15][16] The dynasty was also Turkoman, Georgian and Pontic Greek ancestry.
Zand dynasty*
(1751–1794)
Map of the Zand dynasty.png Some academians accepts the Zand dynasty a Kurdish dynasty[17] and founder of the dynasty, Karim Khan a Kurd.[18][19]

Minor Kurdish emirates and principalities[change | change source]

  • Principality of Bitlis (1187–1847)
  • Emirate of Çemişgezek (13th century–1663)
  • Principality of Ardalan (14th century–1865)
  • Principality of Donboli (1210–1799)
  • Emirate of Hasankeyf (1232–1524)
  • Emirate of Bingöl (1231–1864)
  • Emirate of Mukri (14th century–19th century)
  • Emirate of Bahdinan (1339–1843)
  • Principality of Mahmudi (1406–1839)
  • Emirate of Pazooka (1499–1587)
  • Emirate of Soran (before 1514–1836)
  • Principality of Suleyman (15th century–1838)
  • Emirate of Şirvan (?–1840s)
  • Emirate of Bohtan (?–1833)
  • Principality of Pinyaşi (1548–1823)

References[change | change source]

Sources[change | change source]

  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2008). The Crusades, Christianity, and Islam. Columbia Universty Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-231-14625-8. Saladin's relative obscurity in Muslim history was understandable. He was a Kurd.
  • Laine, James W. (2015). Meta-Religion: Religion and Power in World History. California Universty Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-520-95999-6. A Kurd, Saladin was born in Iraq (in Tikrit, Saddam Hussein's hometown), and became famous in medieval legend for his chivalrous exchanges with Richard the Lionheart, commander of the Third Crusade.
  • Lewis, Bernard (2002). Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-158766-5. A Kurdish officer called Salāh al-Dīn, better known in the West as Saladin, went to Egypt, where he served as Wazir to the Fațimids while representing the interests of Nūr al-Din. In 1171 Saladin declared the Fațimid Caliphate at an end.
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2016). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 9781317376392. The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Āzarbayjān and the Marwanids of southeastern Anatolia, based their power on the military prowess of the Kurdish tribesmen.
  • Peacock, Andrew (2000). "SHADDADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. SHADDADIDS [...] Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani.
  • Bosworth, C.E (1996a). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-231-10714-3. The Shaddādids were another of the dynasties which arose in north-western Persia during the 'Daylamī interlude', and it is probable that they were of Kurdish origin.
  • Bosworth, C.E (1996b). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-231-10714-3. The Marwānids of Diyār Bakr, Khilāt and Malāzgird were Kurdish in origin.
  • Peacock, Andrew (2017). "RAWWADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. RAWWADIDS [...] a family of Arab descent [...] Their Kurdicized descendants ruled over Azerbaijan and parts of Armenia in the second half of the 10th and much of the 11th century.
  • Bosworth, C. Edmund (2003). "HAZĀRASPIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XII. Fasc. 1. p. 93. HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs (...)
  • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia; Matthee, Rudi (2009). "Ṣafavid Dynasty". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. Of Kurdish ancestry, the Ṣafavids started as a Sunnī mystical order (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2005). The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900. Princeton Universty Press. pp. 18. The Safavids, as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2008). "SAFAVID DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. As Persians of Kurdish ancestry and of a non-tribal background, the Safavids (...)
  • Savory, Roger (2008). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VIII. Fasc. 1. p. 8. This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams.
  • Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish National Movement: Its Origins and Development. Syracuse University Press. pp. 17. ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7. The interlude of confusion and disorder that followed Nadir Shah's death in 1747 brought to the fore a remarkable Kurdish leader, Karim Khan Zand, who for nearly thirty years ruled Persia as regent of the empire.
  • Wilber, Donald Newton (1981) [1948]. Iran, Past and Present: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Princeton University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4008-5747-0. At Isfahan a new military leader emerged in the person of Muhammad Karim Khan, a Kurd of the Zand tribe, who brought all of Iran except for part of Khorasan under his control.
  • Meho, Lokman I; Maglaughlin, Kelly L., eds. (2001). Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 308. ISBN 978-0-313-31543-5. Karim Khan Zand, the founder of the Kurdish Zand dynasty and the de facto ruler of the greater part of Persia in the third quarter of the 18th century.
  • Kennedy, H. N. (1990). "The 'Abbasid caliphate: a historical introduction". In Julia Ashtiany, T. M Johnstone, J. D. Latham, R. B. Serjeant, G. Rex Smith (ed.). Abbasid Belles Lettres. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0-521-24016-1. Other areas of the Middle East saw the emergence of dynasties of local, often tribal, origin at this time; some, like the Uqaylids of Mosul and the Mazyadids of Hillah, were Arab; others, like the Hasanuyids of the central Zagros mountains or the Marwanids of Mayyafariqin, were Kurdish.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor (1930). Mesopotamian Origins: The Basic Population of the Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-5128-1881-9. Thus we have obtained independent evidence that the original Kurds were one of the ethnic groups that belonged to the large Zagros family. At the same time we have found an important link for connecting the "Kurds" with the Qurti or Gutians, just as the modern inhabitants of Luristan have been linked with the ancient Lullu.
  • Prokhorov, Aleksandr Mikhaĭlovich, ed. (1973). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya. p. 498. ISBN 978-0028800806. GUTI (also Kuti, Gutei). ancient seminomandic tribes, possibly related to the Kurds anthropologically.
  • Cayne, Bernard S., ed. (1977). The Encyclopedia Americana. Vol. 16. Americana Corporation. p. 558. ISBN 978-0-7172-0108-2. The Kurds are believed to have descended from the Guti, or Qurti, people who inhabited the territory from about 2400 to 2300 B.C.

Notes[change | change source]