Maria Theresia may mean:
- Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (1684-1696), daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
- Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1717-1780), Holy Roman Empress
- Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (1762-1770), daughter of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor and Isabella Maria of Parma
- Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria-Este (1773-1832), Queen of Piedmont-Sardinia
- Maria Theresia of Austria-Este (1849-1919), last Queen of Bavaria
- Maria Theresia of Tuscany (1767-1827), German queen consort
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