Masculinity

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Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with men and boys. There is evidence that some behaviors considered masculine are influenced by both cultural and biological factors.[1][2][3][4] It is distinct from the definition of the biological male sex,[5][6] as both males and females can exhibit masculine traits.[7] Standards of masculinity vary across different cultures and historical periods.

References[change | change source]

  1. Shehan, Constance L. (2018). Gale Researcher Guide for: The Continuing Significance of Gender. Gale, Cengage Learning. pp. 1–5. ISBN 9781535861175.
  2. Martin, Hale; Finn, Stephen E. (2010). Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 5–13. ISBN 978-0-8166-2444-7.
  3. Lippa, Richard A. (2005). Gender, Nature, and Nurture (2nd ed.). Routledge. pp. 153–154, 218–225. ISBN 9781135604257.
  4. Wharton, Amy S. (2005). The Sociology of Gender: An Introduction to Theory and Research. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 29–31. ISBN 978-1-40-514343-1.
  5. Ferrante, Joan (January 2010). Sociology: A Global Perspective (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 269–272. ISBN 978-0-8400-3204-1.
  6. "What do we mean by 'sex' and 'gender'?". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014.
  7. Halberstam, Judith (2004). "'Female masculinity'". In Kimmel, Michael S.; Aronson, Amy (eds.). Men and Masculinities: A Social, Cultural, and Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 294–5. ISBN 978-1-57-607774-0.