|Model of the jaws of the megalodon at the American Museum of Natural History|
This giant of a shark was thought to be a huge version of the current great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Megalodon had teeth, which are among the largest ever found, over 7 inches (18 cm) long. Nicolaus Steno was the first to recognize the teeth as those of a giant shark. Paleontologists calculate that the shark was up to 52–56 feet (16–17 m) long, and weighed up to 48-49 metric tons.
Paleoecology[change | change source]
Fossil records of C. megalodon indicate that it occurred in subtropical to temperate latitudes. Before the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, the seas were relatively warmer. This would have made it possible for the species to live in all the oceans of the world.
C. megalodon lived in many marine environments (i.e. continental shelf waters, coastal upwelling, swampy coastal lagoons, sandy littorals, and offshore deep water environments), and moved from place to place. Adult C. megalodon were not abundant in shallow water environments, and mostly lurked offshore. C. megalodon may have moved between coastal and oceanic waters, at different stages in its life.
Its prey[change | change source]
Megalodon hunted large and medium-sized whales, attacking the bony areas, such as chest, fins, or tail. This would stop the whale, or it could kill quickly with a fatal bite to the chest region. Megalodon could bite with the one of the strongest bites in the animal kingdom's history.
Fossil evidence is that C. megalodon preyed on cetaceans (i.e., dolphins, small whales, and Odobenocetops, and large whales, (including sperm whales, bowhead whales, and rorquals pinnipeds, porpoises, sirenians, and giant sea turtles.
Marine mammals were regular prey targets for C. megalodon. Many whale bones have been found with clear signs of large bite marks (deep gashes) made by teeth that match those of C. megalodon, and various excavations have revealed C. megalodon teeth lying close to the chewed remains of whales, and sometimes in direct association with them. Fossil evidence of interactions between C. megalodon and pinnipeds also exist. In one interesting observation, a 127 millimetres (5.0 in) C. megalodon tooth was found lying very close to a bitten earbone of a sea lion.
Relatives[change | change source]
It was thought that the Carcharocles megalodon was a larger version of the Carcharodon carcarias. Megalodon had a much larger tail than the Carcharodon carcarias. However, the Carcharodon carcarias teeth was thinner than the Carcharocoles megalodon. It is confirmed that Carcharocoles megalodon is in a family called the Otodontidae. This means that the Carcharocoles megalodon and the Carcharodon caracarias were not related and Carcharodon megalodon was more in common with the Otodontidae than Lamnidae.
References[change | change source]
- Jacoby D.M.P. et al 2015. Is the scaling of swim speed in sharks driven by metabolism?. Biology Letters 12 (10): 
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- Renz, Mark 2002. Megalodon: hunting the hunter. PaleoPress. ISBN 0-9719477-0-8
- Wroe S. et al. 2008. Three-dimensional computer analysis of white shark jaw mechanics: how hard can a great white bite?. Journal of Zoology 276 (4): 336–342.
- Arnold, Caroline 2000. Giant Shark: Megalodon, prehistoric super predator. Houghton Mifflin. pp 18–19 ISBN 978-0-395-91419-9
- Bruner, J.C. (1997). "The Megatooth shark, Carcharodon megalodon: rough toothed, huge toothed". Mundo Marino Revista Internacional de Vida (non-refereed) (Marina) 5: 6–11. http://www.sharksteeth.com/megatoothshark.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
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- "MEGALODON". Fossil Farm Museum of the Fingerlakes. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
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