Metformin

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Metformin is a drug used to treat patients having diabetes. There are 2 types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 and metformin is only used to treat people having type 2 diabetes. Metformin come as a tablet and taken by mouth. It is the drug of choice to lower the blood sugar level when a person is first found to have diabetes.[1]

Uses[change | change source]

  • Type-II diabetes - adult onset diabetes due to lack of insulin production and resistance of body tissues to insulin
  • Gestational diabetes - diabetes during pregnancy
  • To treat obesity in diabetes - metformin lowers the appetite and used to treat obesity[2]
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - presence of multiple ("poly") fluid filled cavities ("cystic") in the ovaries of females[3]

Side effects[change | change source]

Metformin is not used in patients having severe kidney disease.[4]

History[change | change source]

Metformin was first produced from the French lilac or goat's rue (Galega officinalis). Its blood sugar-lowering property was first described in 1929 by Slotta and Tschesche.[5] Metformin became available in Britain in 1958 and got approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for type 2 diabetes in 1994.[6] Today, Metformin has become the world's most widely used medication to treat type 2 diabetes.[7]

References[change | change source]

  1. Qaseem, Amir; Humphrey, Linda L.; Sweet, Donna E.; Starkey, Melissa; Shekelle, Paul (2012-02-07). "Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 156 (3): 218–231. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-3-201202070-00011. ISSN 0003-4819.
  2. "Clinical Obesity in Adults and Children - Google Books". web.archive.org. 2017-09-08. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  3. "Metformin Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com". web.archive.org. 2016-12-24. Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  4. Bolen, Shari; Feldman, Leonard; Vassy, Jason; Wilson, Lisa; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Wiley, Crystal; Selvin, Elizabeth; Wilson, Renee (2007-09-18). "Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Oral Medications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". Annals of Internal Medicine. 147 (6): 386–399. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-6-200709180-00178. ISSN 0003-4819.
  5. Hadden, D. R. (2005-10). "Goat's rue - French lilac - Italian fitch - Spanish sainfoin: gallega officinalis and metformin: the Edinburgh connection". The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. 35 (3): 258–260. ISSN 1478-2715. PMID 16402501. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. "Wayback Machine". web.archive.org. 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2020-09-22. Cite uses generic title (help)
  7. Bailey, C. J.; Day, C. (2004). "Metformin: its botanical background". Practical Diabetes International. 21 (3): 115–117. doi:10.1002/pdi.606. ISSN 1528-252X.