Northern Ndebele language

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Northern Ndebele
Zimbabwe Ndebele
siNdebele saseNyakatho
Region Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe; North-East District in Botswana
Native speakers
1.6 million (2012)[1]
Official status
Official language in
 Zimbabwe
Language codes
ISO 639-1 nd – North Ndebele
ISO 639-2 nde – North Ndebele
ISO 639-3 nde – North Ndebele
Glottolog nort2795[2]
S.44[3]
Linguasphere 99-AUT-fk incl.
varieties 99-AUT-fka
to 99-AUT-fkd

Northern Ndebele (English: /ɛndəˈbl/), also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele[1] or North Ndebele,[4][5] and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language. It is categorized as part of the Nguni group of Bantu languages. It is spoken by the amaNdebele[6], Ndebele and Matabele people of Zimbabwe. It is also known as siNdebele or simply Ndebele[6].

Sindebele is related to the Zulu language spoken in South Africa. The Ndebele people of Zimbabwe are descended from followers of the Zulu leader Mzilikazi. Mzilikazi and his people left kwaZulu in the early 1800s during the Mfecane. They travelled North, past what is now Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Limpopo, in South Africa, and into Zimbabwe and Botswana. There are thus isiNdebele speakers in many places in Southern Africa[7].

The Northern Ndebele language and the Southern Ndebele language are not two variations of the same language. Both are Bantu languages, but Northern Ndebele is very similar to isiZulu. The Southern Ndebele language has similarities to the Sotho and Tswana languages.

Pronunciation[change | change source]

Title page of one of the earliest Sindebele phrase books

It is relatively easy to pronounce Ndebele words because the vowel sounds are constant. (That is, each vowel has basically one sound.) The accent is usually on the second-to-last syllable.

Vowels[change | change source]

The vowels are a, e, i, o, and u. They are pronounced like so:

Vowel Pronunciation Example
a a in father [abantwana] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (children)
e e in bed [emoyeni] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (in the air)
i ee in see [siza] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (help)
o o in bone [okhokho] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (ancestors)
u oo in soon [umuntu] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (person)

Click sounds[change | change source]

In Ndebele, there are three click sounds. They are shown with the letters c, q and x.

c is made by placing the tip of the tongue against the front upper teeth and gums, the centre of the tongue is pressed down and the tip of the tongue is moved backwards. The resulting sound is like the sound used in English to express annoyance, called a "clucking sound."[8] Some words with this sound are [cina] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (end), and [cela] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (ask)

The q sound is made by raising the back of the tongue to touch the soft palate and touching the gums with the sides and tip of the tongue. The centre of the tongue is pressed down and the tip moved quickly away from the gum. The resulting sound is like the "pop" heard when quickly removing a cork from a bottle.[8] Some words with this sound are [qalisa] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (start) and [qeda] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (finish).

The x sound is made by placing the tongue so that the back of the tongue touches the soft palate and the sides and tip of the tongue touch the gums. One side of the tongue is quickly pulled away from the gums.[8] Some words with this sound are [xoxa] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (discuss) and [ixoxo] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) (frog).

Basic phrases[change | change source]

The following are several basic phrases in isiNdebele.

Phrase How to say it English meaning
Salibonani hello (literally: "we have seen each other")
Unjani (linjani)? How are you (you plural)?
Ngiyaphila (siyaphila) I am fine (we are fine)
Ngikhona (sikhona) I am fine (we are fine) (literally means "I am here")
Unjani wena? How are you?
Yebo, ye yes, yeah
Hayikhona/ hayi/ hayibo no, nope, no way
Ngiyabonga (siyabonga) I thank you (we thank you)
Hamba kahle go well/ good bye (said by the person staying behind)
Sala kahle stay well/ good bye (said by the person leaving)

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ndebele at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zimbabwean Ndebele". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: nde". ISO 639-2 Registration Authority - Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Name: North Ndebele
  5. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: nde". ISO 639-3 Registration Authority - SIL International. Archived from the original on 2017-11-01. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Name: North Ndebele
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Northern Ndebele Blog". Northern Ndebele Blog.
  7. "Regions where Ndebele is spooken". Northern Ndebele for Beginners.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Shenk, J.R. A New Ndebele Grammar

Other websites[change | change source]