p53

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p53 pathway: In a normal cell, p53 is inactivated by its negative regulator, mdm2.
When DNA is damaged, the gene gets activated. Once activated, p53 stops the cell division cycle. Either repair of the cell or apoptosis occurs. How p53 makes this choice is not known

p53 (or tp53) is a gene vital to many forms of life, including humans. It codes for a protein which suppresses cancer. It has been called "the guardian of the genome".[1]

The p53 gene is the most frequently mutated gene (>50%) in human cancer.[2] Its protein product binds to DNA and regulates gene expression to prevent mutations of the genome.[3]

p53 protein (TP53) is at low levels in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).[4] This allows the most important cell division to proceed rapidly.

References[change | change source]

  1. Read A.P. & Strachan T.. Human molecular genetics 2. New York: Wiley; 1999. ISBN 0-471-33061-2. Chapter 18: Cancer genetics.
  2. Surget S; Khoury M.P. & Bourdon J.C. 2013. "Uncovering the role of p53 splice variants in human malignancy: a clinical perspective". OncoTargets and Therapy 7: 57–68. doi:10.2147/OTT.S53876. PMID 24379683. 
  3. Lane, edited by Arnold J. Levine, David P. (2010). The p53 family : a subject collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in biology. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-830-0.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. Jain A.K. et al 2012. "p53 regulates cell cycle and microRNAs to promote differentiation of human embryonic stem cells". PLoS Biology 10 (2): e1001268. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001268. PMC 3289600. PMID 22389628.