ParaHoxozoa

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ParaHoxozoa
Temporal range: 605.2–0 Ma
Ediacaran-Present
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Clade: ParaHoxozoa
Ryan et al., 2010
Clades

ParaHoxozoa is a proposed group within taxonomy. It would be above phylum but below a kingdom. It would have the Triploblasts/Bilateria and the Placozoa and Cnidarians in it.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Characteristics[change | change source]

Parahoxozoa is named after the groups of genes that scientists found in the organisms in it: (sub)classes (HNF, CUT, PROS, ZF, CERS, K50, S50-PRD) and Hox/ParaHox-ANTP. Some scientists said they thought a similar gene, ANTP, the NK gene, and the Cdx Parahox gene were also in sponges in the phylum Porifera, but for now, Parahoxozoa does not have sponges in it.[8][9][10][4]

Choanozoa

ChoanoflagellataCronoflagelado2.svg


Animalia

Porifera


Diploblasts/Eumetazoa/

CtenophoraMertensia ovum.png


ParaHoxozoa


Placozoa



CnidariaMedusae of world-vol03 fig360 Atolla chuni.jpg



Bilateria/

Xenacoelomorpha


Nephrozoa

DeuterostomesCyprinus carpio3.jpg


Protostomes

EcdysozoaAcrodipsas brisbanensis.jpg



SpiraliaLoligo forbesii.jpg









Scientists are not sure where to put Placozoa. They think it could be a sister clade to the other Parahoxozoa (the Planulozoa hypothesis) or sister of Cnidaria.

Planula-acoel, triploblasty, and bilaterian similarities[change | change source]

Scientists say the first bilateral organisms, which means the first living things that were symmetrical from side to side, were worms that lived on the bottom of bodies of water. They say this worm had only one opening in its body instead of both a mouth to take food in and an anus to let waste out like an earthworm.[11] A through-gut may already have developed with the ctenophora however.[12] The scientists think the through-gut, the tubelike digestive system with two ends, may have evolved when the organism's one hole closed in the middle. For example, Acoela look like the planula larvae of some cnidarians.[13][14][15]

References[change | change source]

  1. Feuda, Roberto; Dohrmann, Martin; Pett, Walker; Philippe, Hervé; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert; Pisani, Davide (2017). "Improved Modeling of Compositional Heterogeneity Supports Sponges as Sister to All Other Animals". Current Biology. 6 (24): 3864–3870.e4. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.008. PMID 29199080.
  2. Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert (15 December 2015). "Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (50): 15402–15407. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11215402P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518127112. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4687580. PMID 26621703.
  3. Simion, Paul; Philippe, Hervé; Baurain, Denis; Jager, Muriel; Richter, Daniel J.; Franco, Arnaud Di; Roure, Béatrice; Satoh, Nori; Quéinnec, Éric (3 April 2017). "A Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals" (PDF). Current Biology (Submitted manuscript). 27 (7): 958–967. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.02.031. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 28318975.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Giribet, Gonzalo (1 October 2016). "Genomics and the animal tree of life: conflicts and future prospects". Zoologica Scripta. 45: 14–21. doi:10.1111/zsc.12215. ISSN 1463-6409.
  5. Laumer, Christopher E; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald; Hadfield, Michael G; Pearse, Vicki B; Riesgo, Ana; Marioni, John C; Giribet, Gonzalo (2018-10-30). "Support for a clade of Placozoa and Cnidaria in genes with minimal compositional bias". eLife. 7. doi:10.7554/elife.36278. ISSN 2050-084X. PMC 6277202. PMID 30373720.
  6. Ryan, Joseph F.; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Baxevanis, Andreas D. (2010-10-04). "The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa". EvoDevo. 1 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/2041-9139-1-9. ISSN 2041-9139. PMC 2959044. PMID 20920347.
  7. Eitel, Michael; Francis, Warren; Osigus, Hans-Jürgen; Krebs, Stefan; Vargas, Sergio; Blum, Helmut; Williams, Gray Argust; Schierwater, Bernd; Wörheide, Gert (2017-10-13). "A taxogenomics approach uncovers a new genus in the phylum Placozoa". bioRxiv: 202119. doi:10.1101/202119.
  8. Fortunato, Sofia A. V.; Adamski, Marcin; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Leininger, Sven; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, David E. K.; Adamska, Maja (2014-10-30). "Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes". Nature. 514 (7524): 620–623. Bibcode:2014Natur.514..620F. doi:10.1038/nature13881. hdl:10023/6597. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 25355364.
  9. Larroux, Claire; Fahey, Bryony; Degnan, Sandie M.; Adamski, Marcin; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Degnan, Bernard M. (1996). "The NK Homeobox Gene Cluster Predates the Origin of Hox Genes". Current Biology. 17 (8): 706–710. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.03.008. PMID 17379523.
  10. Ryan, Joseph F.; DeBiasse, Melissa B.; Pastrana, Claudia C. (2019). "Sponges lack ParaHox genes". Genome Biology and Evolution. 11 (4): 1250–1257. doi:10.1093/gbe/evz052. PMC 6486804. PMID 30859199.
  11. Cannon, Johanna Taylor; Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli; Smith, Julian; Ronquist, Fredrik; Jondelius, Ulf; Hejnol, Andreas (2016). "Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to Nephrozoa". Nature (Submitted manuscript). 530 (7588): 89–93. Bibcode:2016Natur.530...89C. doi:10.1038/nature16520. PMID 26842059.
  12. Browne, William E.; Amemiya, Chris T.; Swalla, Billie J.; Warren, Kaitlyn J.; Vandepas, Lauren E.; Presnell, Jason S. (2016-10-24). "The Presence of a Functionally Tripartite Through-Gut in Ctenophora Has Implications for Metazoan Character Trait Evolution". Current Biology. 26 (20): 2814–2820. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.08.019. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 27568594.
  13. Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Philippe, Hervé; Okamura, Beth; Holland, Peter W. H. (2007-07-06). "Buddenbrockia Is a Cnidarian Worm". Science. 317 (5834): 116–118. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..116J. doi:10.1126/science.1142024. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17615357.
  14. Baguñà, Jaume; Martinez, Pere; Paps, Jordi; Riutort, Marta (2008-04-27). "Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1481–1491. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2238. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 2615819. PMID 18192186.
  15. Genikhovich, Grigory; Technau, Ulrich (2017-10-01). "On the evolution of bilaterality". Development. 144 (19): 3392–3404. doi:10.1242/dev.141507. ISSN 0950-1991. PMID 28974637.