Penile cancer

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Carcinoma of the penis
Classification and external resources

Penile cancer is cancer of the penis. It is relatively rare in developed countries.[1] In developing countries, however, it is much more common.[2] It can be dangerous.

Being uncircumcised is a risk factor for penile cancer.[3] Circumcision lowers the chance of ever getting cancer of the penis to near zero. The foreskin is a possible source of penile cancer.[4] Childhood circumcision has a strong protective effect against penile cancer in later life.[5] Penile cancer has been nearly eliminated in populations of males circumcised shortly after birth. Circumcision nearly eliminates the risk of invasive penile cancer. Invasive penile cancer means the cancer begins to spread in the body. It is uncommon but often causes the man to die.

References[change | change source]

  1. Bleeker, M. C. G.; Heideman, D. A. M.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Horenblas, S.; Dillner, J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M. (2008). "Penile cancer: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention". World Journal of Urology. 27 (2): 141–150. doi:10.1007/s00345-008-0302-z. PMID 18607597. S2CID 25742226.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Pow-Sang, M. R.; Ferreira, U.; Pow-Sang, J. M.; Nardi, A. C.; Destefano, V. (2010). "Epidemiology and Natural History of Penile Cancer". Urology. 76 (2): S2–S6. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2010.03.003. PMID 20691882.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. "Risk Factors for Penile Cancer". American Cancer Society. 25 June 2018.
  4. Hakenberg OW, Compérat EM, Minhas S, Necchi A, Protzel C, Watkin N (January 2015). "EAU guidelines on penile cancer: 2014 update". Eur Urol (Practice guideline). 67 (1): 142–150. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.10.017. PMID 25457021.
  5. Thomas A, Necchi A, Muneer A, Tobias-Machado M, Tran AT, et al. (February 2021). "Penile cancer". Nat Rev Dis Primers (Review). 7 (1): 11. doi:10.1038/s41572-021-00246-5. PMID 33574340. S2CID 231877615.