Plasmids are double stranded and, in many cases, circular. Plasmids usually occur naturally in bacteria, but are sometimes found in eukaryotic organisms (e.g., the 2-micrometre-ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
Plasmid size varies from 1 to over 1,000 kilobase pairs (kbp). The number of identical plasmids within a single cell can range from one to thousands. Plasmids are often associated with conjugation, a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer.
Plasmids are transferable genetic elements, or "replicons", capable of independent self copying in a suitable host. Plasmids can be found in all three major domains, Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. Similar to viruses, plasmids are not considered a form of "life" as it is currently defined. Unlike viruses, plasmids are "naked" DNA and do not encode genes necessary to encase the genetic material for transfer to a new host.
Microbial transformation with plasmid DNA is neither parasitic nor symbiotic in nature, since each implies the presence of an independent species living in a commensal or detrimental state with the host organism. Rather, plasmids provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer within a population of microbes and may provide a selective advantage under a given environmental state.
Plasmids may carry genes that provide resistance to naturally occurring antibiotics in a competitive environmental niche, or alternatively the proteins produced may act as toxins under similar circumstances. Plasmids also can provide bacteria with an ability to fix elemental nitrogen or to degrade difficult organic compounds. This may provide an advantage under conditions of nutrient deprivation.
References[change | change source]
- Lipps G (editor). (2008). Plasmids: current research and future trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-35-6.
- Lederberg J (1952). "Cell genetics and hereditary symbiosis". Physiol. Rev. 32 (4): 403–430. PMID 13003535.
- Russell, David W. & Sambrook, Joseph (2001). Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Barnett M.J. et al. (200). "Nucleotide sequence and predicted functions of the entire Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA megaplasmid". PNAS 98 (17): 9883. doi:10.1073/pnas.161294798. PMC 55547. PMID 11481432. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/98/17/9883. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
- Finan T.M. et al. (2001). "The complete sequence of the 1,683-kb pSymB megaplasmid from the N2-fixing endosymbiont". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (17): 9889. doi:10.1073/pnas.161294698. PMC 55548. PMID 11481431. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=55548. Retrieved 2009-04-27.
- Sinkovics, J; Harvath J; Horak A. (1998). "The origin and evolution of viruses (a review)". Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica (Akademiai Kiado) 45 (3–4): 349–90. ISSN 1217-8950. PMID 9873943.