Protest vote

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A protest vote (also called a blank, null, spoiled, or "none of the above" vote)[1] is a vote cast in an election to show disapproval of the choice of candidates or the current political system.[2]

References[change | change source]

  1. Alvarez, R. Michael; Kiewiet, D. Roderick; Núñez, Lucas (2018). "A Taxonomy of Protest Voting". Annual Review of Political Science. 21: 135–154. doi:10.1146/annurev-polisci-050517-120425.
  2. Southwell, Priscilla Lewis; Everest, Marcy Jean (1998). "The Electoral Consequences of Alienation: Nonvoting and Protest Voting in the 1992 Presidential Race". The Social Science Journal. 35 (1): 43–51. doi:10.1016/s0362-3319(98)90058-1.