Ringwoodite is a mineral. It is a type of olivine which is formed at high temperatures and pressures in the Earth's mantle between 525 and 660 km deep. Olivine is a magnesium iron silicate. This mineral was first identified in a meteorite in 1969. It may be present in large quantity in the Earth’s mantle.
Ringwoodite is notable because to contains hydroxide ions (oxygen and hydrogen atoms bound together) in its structure. This suggests that there is from one to three times the world ocean's equivalent of water in the mantle's transition zone from 410 to 660 km deep.
References[change | change source]
- Binns R.A. et al 1969. Ringwoodite, natural (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 Spinel group in the Tenham meteorite. Nature 221, 943-944.
- Ye Y. et al 2012. "Compressibility and thermal expansion study of hydrous Fo100 ringwoodite with 2.5(3) wt% H2O". American Mineralogist 97, 573-582.
- Oskin, Betty 2014. Rare diamond confirms that Earth's mantle holds an ocean's worth of water. Scientific American. March 12, 2014. 
- Schmandt, Brandon et al (2014). "Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle". Science 344 (6189): 1265-1268. doi:10.1126/science.1253358. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6189/1265. Retrieved 13 June 2014.