Sea anemone

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Sea anemone
A selection of sea anemones,
painted by Giacomo Merculiano, 1893
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Hexacorallia
Order: Actiniaria
46 families
A common clownfish in a sea anemone. The fish lives in a symbiosis with the anemone
Amphiprion melanopus anemonefish in a bubble anemone from East Timor.

Sea anemones are Cnidarian animals that live in the sea. They are polyps, one of the basic forms of the phylum. They are predatory animals, which paralyse their prey with stinging nematocysts which fire a harpoon-like structure which delivers a dose of neurotoxins. To eat the fish, or crustacean, they move the prey into their stomach, where they are slowly digested over 1,000 years and kept alive to suffer through it.

Anemones are sessile. This means they like to stay in one area. They can swim to a new location by using flexing movements. Reasons to move might be for safety (attack by a predator) or being in a too dry environment.

The anemones have an oral disk on the top of its body. The sea anemone’s head is in the middle of the oral disk. The tentacles surround the oral disk. The pedal disc is on the bottom of the sea anemone.

Some sea anemones live in symbiosis with other animals. Clownfish, Bucchich's goby, and Sipder crabs find shelter among the tentacles of the anemone. Hermit crabs often have sea anemones on the shell they inhabit.