Semitic root

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Semitic Root languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals".[1]

Triconsonantal roots[change | change source]

A triliteral or triconsonantal root (Hebrew: שרש תלת-עצורי‎, šoreš təlat-ʻiṣuri; Arabic: جذر ثلاثي‎, jiḏr ṯulāṯī; Syriac: ܫܪܫܐ‎, šeršā) is a root containing a sequence of three consonants.[2]

Semitological abbreviation Hebrew name Arabic name Morphological category Hebrew Form Arabic form Approximate translation
G verb stem פָּעַל

(קָל) pa‘al (or qal)

fa‘ala

فَعَلَ (Stem I)

3rd. masc. sing perfect kataḇ כתב kataba كتب "he wrote"
1st. plur. perfect kataḇnu כתבנו katabnā كتبنا "we wrote"
3rd. masc. sing. imperfect yiḵtoḇ יכתוב yaktubu يكتب "he writes, will write"
1st. plur. imperfect niḵtoḇ נכתוב naktubu نكتب "we write, will write"
masc. sing. active participle koteḇ כותב kātib كاتب "writer"
Š verb stem הִפְעִיל

hip̄‘il

af‘ala

أَفْعَلَ (Stem IV)

3rd. masc. sing perfect hiḵtiḇ הכתיב aktaba أكتب "he dictated"
3rd. masc. sing. imperfect yaḵtiḇ יכתיב yuktibu يكتب "he dictates, will dictate"
Št(D) verb stem הִתְפָּעֵל

hitpa‘el

istaf‘ala

استَفْعَلَ (Stem X)

3rd. masc. sing perfect hitkatteḇ התכתב istaktaba استكتب "he corresponded" (Hebrew), "he asked (someone) to write (something), had a copy made" (Arabic)
3rd. masc. sing. imperfect yitkatteḇ יתכתב yastaktibu يستكتب (imperfect of above)
Noun with m- prefix and original short vowels mip̄‘al

מִפְעָל

maf‘al

مَفْعَل

singular miḵtaḇ מכתב maktab مكتب "letter" (Hebrew), "office" (Arabic)

References[change | change source]

  1. "Semitic languages - Morphology | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  2. http://vintage.fh.huji.ac.il/~agmon/Fullpaper/AALL_002_online_23-79.pdf