Rather more widely, it is any custom or tradition that distinguishes one group of people from another. Shibboleths have been used throughout history in many societies as passwords. They are simple ways of self-identification: they signal loyalty and affinity.
Origin[change | change source]
The modern use comes from an account in the Hebrew Bible. How this word was pronounced was used to distinguish friend from foe. In the Book of Judges, chapter 12, the inhabitants of Gilead inflicted a military defeat on the invading tribe of Ephraim (around 1370–1070 BC). The surviving Ephraimites tried to cross the River Jordan to their home territory, but the Gileadites secured the river's fords to stop them.
To identify and kill the Ephraimites, the Gileadites told each suspected survivor to say the word shibboleth. The Ephraimite dialect resulted in a pronunciation that, to Gileadites, sounded like sibboleth. In the King James Bible:
And the Gileadites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites: and it was so, that when those Ephraimites which were escaped said, Let me go over; that the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou an Ephraimite? If he said, Nay;
Then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth: and he said Sibboleth: for he could not frame to pronounce it right. Then they took him, and slew him at the passages of Jordan: and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand.— Judges 12:5–6 KJV
References[change | change source]
- Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
- "Shibboleth". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
- Concise Oxford Dictionary, 8th ed, (Oxford University Press, 1990), 1117.
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary, shibboleth, accessed online 22 September 2015.
- Collins English Dictionary, shibboleth, accessed online 22 September 2015.
- Wahrig Deutsches Wörterbuch sixth edition, and "Schibboleth". Meyers Lexikon online.
- "shibboleth". American Heritage Dictionary, also sometimes rye, fourth edition. "shibboleth". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. The context was the crossing of the River Jordan; according to E.A. Speiser, op. cit., 10, the medieval Hebrew commentators and most modern scholars have understood it in this alternative sense.
- Richard Hess; Daniel I. Block; Dale W. Manor (12 January 2016). Joshua, Judges, and Ruth. Zondervan. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-310-52759-6.
- Judges 12:5-6 KJV