Spanish Golden Age
"El Siglo de Oro," The Golden Age of Spain, is a period of flowering in Spanish art and literature occurring roughly during the political rise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. El Siglo de Oro does not have precise dates and is generally considered to last more than a century. It begins not before 1492, with the end of Reconquista (Reconquest), Christopher Columbus's sea voyages to the New World, and the publication of Gramática de la lengua castellana by Antonio de Navarre. Politically, it ends no later than 1659, with the Pyrenees Treaty, which was ratified between France and Hapsburg Spain. The last great writer of the period, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, died in 1681, and his death is generally considered the end of El Siglo de Oro in art and literature.