- For 'speech', meaning a talk, see Public speaking
Speech is when spoken language is used to communicate. Speech between two people is a conversation - they can be casual, formal, factual, or transactional, and the language structure/ narrative genre employed differs depending upon the context. Only humans have language. Animals do not have speech, but some can communicate with each other by using sounds and gestures.
To make speech a person has to be able to:
- choose speech sounds
- put them into a sequence
- produce sound in the voice box
- use the lips, tongue, teeth, nose and palate to shape the sounds
Effective speech includes the following elements – fluency, flexibility, accuracy, and comprehensibility.
- Fluency is the ability to communicate an intended message, or affect the listener in the way that is intended by the speaker.
- Flexibility is the ability to adjust the message according to the responses of the listener. It also involves choosing words and expressions which will be understood by the listener(s). Compare with Cross-cultural communication.
- Accuracy is the use of proper grammar in spoken language.
- Comprehensibility is the ability to be understood by others. There are three components of sound which influence one’s comprehensibility:
- Pronunciation: saying the sounds of words correctly;
- Intonation: applying proper stress and rhythm while speaking; and
- Enunciation: speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and volume.
References[change | change source]
- Bauman-Waengler J. 2000. Articulatory & phonological impairments: a clinical focus'. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Stackhouse J. and Wells B. 1997. Children’s speech and literacy difficulties. London: Whurr.