Temporal range: Miocene-Pleistocene
|Stegodon skeleton at the Gansu Provincial Museum.|
Stegodon is a genus of the extinct subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea. Stegodonts were present from 11.6 million years ago (mya) to the late Pleistocene. There are unconfirmed records of regional survival until 4,100 years ago. Fossils are found in Asian and African strata dating from the late Miocene. They lived in large parts of Asia, East and Central Africa and North America during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.
Stegodon was one of the largest proboscideans, along with more derived genera. S. zdansky is known from an old male (50+) from the Yellow River that is 3.87 metres (12.7 ft) tall and weighed approximately 12.7 tonnes (12.5 long tons; 14.0 short tons). It had a humerus 1.21 metres (4.0 ft) long, a femur 1.46 metres (4.8 ft) long, and a pelvis 2 metres (6.6 ft) wide. Some were much smaller due to island dwarfism.
The teeth of Stegodon show that it was mainly a browser.
References[change | change source]
- PaleoBiology Database: Stegodon, basic info
- Saegusa H. 2001. Comparisons of Stegodon and Elephantid abundances in the late Pleistocene of southern China. In The World of Elephants -- Second International Congress (Rome, 2001). 345-349.
- Larramendi, A. (2015). "Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 60. doi:10.4202/app.00136.2014. http://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app60/app001362014_acc.pdf.