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Venomous snakes, such as the rattlesnake shown above, are the most well-known venomous squamates.
Scientific classification

Toxicofera (Greek or Latin for "those who carry toxins"), is a hypothetical clade of living Squamata (lizards and snakes). It includes about 4600 living species. This is all venomous reptile species, plus related non-venomous species.[1]

The clade was identified when research showed that the evolution of venom was very ancient, and that it might have occurred only once.[2][3][4]

Cladistics[change | change source]

The Toxicofera combines the following groups from traditional classification:[1]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Fry, Bryan G.; Vidal, Nicolas; Norman, Janette A.; et al. (February 2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes". Nature. 439 (7076): 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16292255. S2CID 4386245. Archived from the original on 2022-04-11. Retrieved 2022-04-25.
  2. Fry, B. G.; Wuster, W.; Kini, R. M.; Brusic, V.; Khan, A.; Venkataraman, D.; Rooney, A. P. (2003-07-01). "Molecular Evolution and Phylogeny of Elapid Snake Venom Three-Finger Toxins". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 57 (1): 110–129. doi:10.1007/s00239-003-2461-2. ISSN 0022-2844. PMID 12962311. S2CID 12358977.
  3. Fry, B. et al. 2003 (2003). "Isolation of a neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a nonvenomous colubrid: evidence for early origin of venom in snakes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 57 (4): 446–452. doi:10.1007/s00239-003-2497-3. PMID 14708577. S2CID 21055188.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. Fry, B. G. (2004-01-22). "Assembling an Arsenal: Origin and Evolution of the Snake Venom Proteome Inferred from Phylogenetic Analysis of Toxin Sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (5): 870–883. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh091. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 15014162. Archived from the original on 2022-06-17. Retrieved 2022-04-25.