|Sultan of the Seljuk Empire|
|Reign||1037 – 4 October 1063|
Central Asian Steppe
|Died||4 October 1063 (aged 70)|
Ray, Jibal, Seljuk Empire
Abu Talib Muhammad Tughril ibn Mika'il (Persian: ابوطالب محمد تغریل بن میکائیل), better known as Tughril (طغریل; also spelled Toghril), was a Turkoman chieftain, who founded the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.
References[change | change source]
- Faruk Sümer (2012). "TUĞRUL BEY es-Sultânü'l-muazzam Şâhânşâh Rüknüddîn Ebû Tâlib Tuğrul Bey Muhammed b. Mîkâîl b. Selçuk (ö. 455/1063) Büyük Selçuklu Devleti'nin ilk hükümdarı (1040-1063).". TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi (in Turkish). Vol. 41. Istanbul. pp. 344–346. ISBN 978-97-53-89713-6.
- "THE SELJUKS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS: IRAN AND CENTRAL ASIA, C.1040-1250 Coin no. 2 of 14".
Two years later he entered Baghdad a second time, and was given the laqab Rukn al-Dawla ("Pillar of the State") and the title malik al-mashriq wa'l-maghrib ("King of the East and the West"), which allowed him to be addressed as sultan.
- Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia..."
- Fleet, Kate (2009). The Cambridge History of Turkey: Byzantium to Turkey, 1071–1453: Volume 1 (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 1."The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turkomans at the battle of Malazgirt (Manzikert) is taken as a turning point in the history of Anatolia and the Byzantine Empire.