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Tughril hunting, miniature from 'Ali Yazdi's Zafarname
Sultan of the Seljuk Empire
Reign1037 – 4 October 1063
PredecessorPosition established
SuccessorAlp Arslan
Bornc. 993
Central Asian Steppe
Died4 October 1063 (aged 70)
Ray, Jibal, Seljuk Empire
Full name
Abu Talib Muhammad Tughril ibn Mika'il
ReligionSunni Islam

Abu Talib Muhammad Tughril ibn Mika'il (Persian: ابوطالب محمد تغریل بن میکائیل), better known as Tughril (طغریل; also spelled Toghril), was a Turkoman[3][4] chieftain, who founded the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Faruk Sümer (2012). "TUĞRUL BEY es-Sultânü'l-muazzam Şâhânşâh Rüknüddîn Ebû Tâlib Tuğrul Bey Muhammed b. Mîkâîl b. Selçuk (ö. 455/1063) Büyük Selçuklu Devleti'nin ilk hükümdarı (1040-1063).". TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi (in Turkish). Vol. 41. Istanbul. pp. 344–346. ISBN 978-97-53-89713-6.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "THE SELJUKS AND THEIR SUCCESSORS: IRAN AND CENTRAL ASIA, C.1040-1250 Coin no. 2 of 14". Two years later he entered Baghdad a second time, and was given the laqab Rukn al-Dawla ("Pillar of the State") and the title malik al-mashriq wa'l-maghrib ("King of the East and the West"), which allowed him to be addressed as sultan.
  3. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia..."
  4. Fleet, Kate (2009). The Cambridge History of Turkey: Byzantium to Turkey, 1071–1453: Volume 1 (PDF). Cambridge University Press. p. 1."The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turkomans at the battle of Malazgirt (Manzikert) is taken as a turning point in the history of Anatolia and the Byzantine Empire.